Radio Warsaw announced yeterday that Poland's martial-law government is reducing January meat and butter rations for all Poles except manual laborers because of a "serious shortfall" in supplies.

Persons with special needs such as children, pregnant women, the elderly and the sick will receive augmented food supplies, the report said, but farmers with more than 1.2 acres of land will receive no rations at all.

In another broadcast, Radio Warsaw also reported that 1,111 remaining strikers in the Piast coal mine in Silesia still were causing "a little disquiet," while a Soviet dispatch from Warsaw quoted an unnamed Polish official taking a harder line in warning that "responsibility for this senseless action wll be borne" by the leaders of what appears to be the last large-scale worker resistance to martial law.

The braodcast acknowledged transportation difficulties in the capital due to heavy snowfall. But while saying that "it may be more difficult to visit family and friends" on public transport during the holiday season, the braodcast suggested that "it is warm enough to take long, healthy walks."

In a censored dispatch from Warsaw, Reuter news agency suggested that transportation and communication problems may be more serious than the government has indicated. Private gasoline sales still are prohibited, and the report said that emergency supplies of gasoline held by individual civilians had all but dried up.

There was virtually no traffic on the streets of the capital, Reuter said, with the roadways left unusually white without vehicles churning the fresh snow into slush.

Reports reaching the West from inside Poland Saturday said that the now-suspended Solidarity trade union had circulated clandestine documents in Warsaw acknowledging that all major strikes against the two-week-old martial-law government had ended, except for that in the Piast mine.

The documents said that strikes in some mines in the south had been ended by security forces, and that at one striking miners were gassed and brought to the surface on "waste heaps." When they were revived, they were forced back to work at gunpoint, and those who refused were arrested, according to the documents.

Radio Warsaw said yesterday that "739 persons have come to the surface since the beginning of the action," and that families were sending food parcels to 1,111 miners remaining below. One report, quoting Col. Bronislaw Zielecki of the National Defense Committee in the Piast mine, said that persons who "distrust the information conveyed from the surface" could leave the mine, "acquaint themselves with the situation," see their families and return below if they wished.

Some broadcasts emphasized a large amount of coal being loaded from the region in general, and spoke of "the work forces of some bakeries . . . busy making fresh bread for today."

"Consignments of medicines and food are also being received," according to one report. "Yesterday . . . a train carrying rice from the Soviet Union was unloaded. Ten cars with medicines and food from Austria also arrived."

But others made repeated references to shortfalls and the necessity for new rationing. "While in the past few days procurement had increased in some provinces," the broadcast on rationing said, "countrywide purchases in December had been as much as 49 percent" lower than in the past year. U.S. CRITICIZED

The Soviet media continued its harsh criticism of what it has called U.S. interference and provocation in Poland. One report broadcast by Radio Moscow charged that former Carter administration national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski was one of the leading coauthors of the "Polish scenario."

Under cover of the "global principle of defense of human rights," the report said, "he placed the main stake on the collapse of the world socialist system on a schism between the Soviet Union and the other European countries of the socialist community, singling out Poland first and foremost among them."

The Soviet report also spoke of the "many threads of the antisocialist opposition lead[ing] in particular to Paris, the location of one of the Polish immigrant centers specializing in subversion against the Polish People's Republic and other countries of the socialist fraternity."

Returning to its criticism of the last several days of the Reagan administration, the international service of the Tass news agency, broadcast from Moscow, said that the "peak" of the U.S. anti-Poland campaign came in President Reagan's speech last week, in which he "resorted to a deliberate falsification of events in Poland."

Another Tass report criticized a recent tour by Assistant Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger of European capitals for discussions on the Polish question as "gross pressure on the Western European countries in an attempt to draw [America's] NATO partners into the anti-Polish, anti-Soviet hysteria being stirred up by official Washington." SOVIET BLOC REPORTS

A number of reports from the Soviet Bloc concerning Poland were monitored over various radio frequencies yesterday, as well as several from Poland to other countries.

In a braodcast to Hungary, which was invaded by Soviet troops in 1956, Capt. Wieslaw Gornicki, adviser to Polish martial-law leader Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, said that the "time is now coming for the much longer second phase" of martial law.

"Without going into details," he said, "I would like to assure our Hungarian friends from whom we have learned a great deal -especially on this occasion -that this second phase, in the process of restoration of order in Poland and the reform of our mechanisms, the intentions of the Military Council of National Salvation are clear and unequivocal."

"Socialism in Poland must be first and foremost thhe socialism of order," Gornicki said, "but socialism that is approved and built by the nation. In my opinion it is precisely with our Hungarian friends that we understand each other best."

A report from Czechoslovakia warned that "any U.S. interference in the internal affairs of Poland is condemned to failure. Poland is not a banana republic that United States can bring to its knees at its will. It has sufficient internal forces and also faithful allies to rely on, including Czechoslovakia . . . . Just as the United States failed to bring free Cuba to its knees, so it will also fail with the People's Poland."

The following dispatch is based on information arriving from Poland:

Polish martial-law authorities are looking at the coming week as a major test of whether they can safely relax somewhat the restrictions on personal freedom that so far have kept the opposition from mounting a coordinated antigovernment campaign.

Work is due to resume today at factories and coal mines that had been the focus of early open resistance to the military authorities. Among the potential trouble spots are the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk, the giant Katowice steel mill, where security forces have put down two strikes in as many weeks, and the coal mines of Silesia.

Observers found it significant that worker resistance had centered in two vital economic sectors in wiidely distant regions -the Baltic shipyards and the southwestern coal mines. Any long-term disturbance in either of these sectors threatens to bring Poland's virtually bankrupt economy to total collapse.

But as Poles adapt to what is shaping up as a long, repressive period, they are beginning to express their opposition in dozens of ways, some open and defiant, others clandestine and mild.

Some Poles visited their families during the holidays wearing black mourning ribbons on their lapels -a form of protest that was used after the 1863 uprising was put down by the czar. Yesterday, a car with a Solidarity sticker displayed boldly on the rear window drove down one of Warsaw's icy thoroughfares.

But most wore their buttons less conspicuously -on the insides of their lapels, for example. One resident in the Mokotow section, south of downtown, put a Solidarity button on the Christmas wreath adorning his front door, but then took it down after an hour. BITTER JOKES

"What's the quickest way to get an ambulance?" asks one of the bitter martial-law jokes circulating widely through the capital, where telephone communications have been cut since Dec. 12. "Go outside to a telephone booth after curfew and yell 'Solidarity.'"

"Adolf Jaruzelski" graffiti has appeared in some parts of town -a biting comparison of Adolf Hitler to martial-law chief Jaruzelski.

All theaters, movie houses and sports events have been closed or canceled since martial law began. After a steady diet of military concerts and war films, Polish television is now lightening its fare, with "The Flintstones," "The Muppets," a sexy Scandinavian review and old light entertainment films.

But for the most part, Poles are reviving the old customs of the drop-in visit. They bring flowers, a bit of vodka if there is any, and lots of primarily martial-law gossip. They expect the same in return. At 10:45 p.m., doors up and down the block open, and people trudge through the snow in a mad dash to beat the 11 p.m. curfew.

During their visits, some Poles engage in a new pastime -dreaming up ways to foil the authorities. One student described a series of inventive techniques for spreading leaflets. He said students at Warsaw Polytechnic had devised a box, charged with flares and containing a stack of leaflets, which would explode minutes after being set, scattering the contents widely.

He also said chemistry students had come up with an invisible ink-type paint used to deface official posters. Thirty minutes after it is applied, and long after the perpetrators have disappeared in the crowds, the paint blots out the official propaganda. The existence of these inventions could not be confirmed independently.

There also are numerous stories of old Polish soldiers from the wartime resistance movement giving lessons to youngsters in how to take on the martial-law authorities.

Meanwhile, there appears to be no substance to reports that two of Poland's best known political dissidents -Jacek Kuron and Adam Michnik -have been treated brutally in prison.

Michnik was reported by people who have visited the Bialolenka Prison, where he is held, to be engaging in political discussions with prison officials. The visitors said the cell doors of many detainees were open so they could congregate.

Kuron was reported to have organized a political study group for workers with whom he is being held in a prison near Gdansk.

At a major intersection in a Warsaw suburb, there was one sign of a more relaxed atmosphere. Three soldiers in full battle dress had given up their normal duties of checking the identifications of passing motorists. Instead, they build a snowman in the shadow of their armored personnel carrier.