Poland's highest domestic security official yesterday urged troops and police to resist an appeal by a senior Solidarity leader to defy their superiors and oppose martial law.

Interior Minister Czeslaw Kiszczak, in a New Year's message broadcast by Radio Warsaw, called for "steadfastness" by security forces in the face of the dramatic message issued from hiding Thursday by Zbigniew Bujak, the highest-ranking Solidarity leader to escape arrest in the martial law imposed three weeks ago.

Kiszczak's broadcast came as Pope John Paul II, in his strongest statement on the Polish crisis so far, declared his firm personal support for Solidarity, the suspended independent trade union movement whose pressures for democratic reform led to the Polish military's seizure of power.

After delivering his formal New Year's message at St. Peter's Square in Rome yesterday, the Polish-born former archbishop of Krakow said he noted many "Solidarity" banners among the crowd in the square. "Thanks, many thanks for these expressions of solidarity with Solidarnosc," he said, using the union's Polish name.

Describing Solidarity's formation, in August 1980 as "a great effort which working men have made in my country to ensure the true dignity of the worker," the pope asserted that "workers have the right to set up autonomous trade unions whose role is to guard their social, family and individual rights."

Until yesterday, the pope had dealt less directly with the issue of Solidarity's right to exist within a Communist-run state, calling in general terms for calm and nonviolence and speaking elliptically of the church's "solidarity" with Polish workers.

In recent days, however, he has received first-hand reports of the situation under martial law from a high-ranking Polish bishop who came to the Vatican and from Archbishop Luigi Poggi, the Vatican's top diplomat with responsibility for Eastern Europe, who made a fact-finding trip to Warsaw.

Little has been made public about the reports that either prelate gave the pope, but other reports have said that priests have been at least temporarily detained in Poland for opposition to martial law and that at least one remains under arrest.

Radio Warsaw, which in the past has covered John Paul's messages in considerable detail, carried only a short account of his remarks yesterday and did not mention his defense of Solidarity and of the right of workers to organize, The Associated Press reported from Vienna.

Kiszczak's broadcast message to the police and security services called on the troops to demonstrate "political maturity, steadfastness and resistance to the campaign of calumny by internal enemies and their foreign sponsors," AP reported.

Solidarity leader Bujak's handwritten appeal issued from his hideout in Poland urged the security forces to "listen to their conscience" and "not allow themselves to be used in the waging of war against the nation," according to information arriving from Poland Thursday.

In other New Year's messages, the presidents of Czechoslovakia and Hungary expressed their support for Poland's martial law and Poland's head-of-state, Henryk Jablonski, urged his countrymen, "Let us have courage to face up to the truth even when it is not as we would wish it to be."

Czechoslovak President Gustav Husak, who came to power when Warsaw Pact forces overthrew a less hard-line government in his country in 1968, said: "We declare our full solidarity with the struggle of patriotic forces, devoted to socialism, in the Polish People's Republic to overcome the crisis situation and to strengthen socialist Poland in the fight against antisocialist and counterrevolutionary forces," Reuter reported.

Pal Losonczi, president of Hungary, which Warsaw Pact forces invaded in 1956, said: "We welcome and support our Polish friends' measures aimed at defending socialism and creating internal normalization," according to MTI, the official Hungarian news agency. "We are convinced that these constitute the best solution for the Polish people as well as for the world."

Meanwhile, according to Reuter, informed sources in East Berlin said that several East Germans who sympathize with Solidarity have been arrested since imposition of martial law in Poland.

They told Reuter that the arrests were apparently made as a precaution against any form of protest about the martial law.

Radio Warsaw reported that a former radio and television chief ousted following the 1980 labor unrest will be put on trial Tuesday on corruption and mismanagement charges. The official, Maciej Szczepanski, was a close associate of former Communist Party leader Edward Gierek who also was removed as a result of the labor upheaval and is in custody.

In another official announcement, the radio quoted a Council of Ministers' decree granting special privileges to more than 2 million Poles who work in a variety of job categories considered to involve dangerous tasks or be especially taxing. The workers, including teachers, miners, chemical workers, truck and bus drivers and those exposed to hazardous substances, will qualify for increased disability pensions and earlier retirement.

Polish authorities announced yesterday that elementary and high schools, closed at the time martial law was declared Dec. 13, will reopen Monday. They made no mention of reopening colleges and universities, where Solidarity had considerable support.

Radio Warsaw said last night that 1982 had begun calmly throughout the country, specifically mentioning several areas earlier reported to be trouble spots, including Radom Province and the industrial centers of Gdansk and Katowice, according to Reuter.

Reports reaching the West Thursday had said troops were used in Radom to contain a workers' rebellion at a nearby ammunition factory.

Radio Warsaw said about 2,000 workers had turned up yesterday at the huge Lenin shipyard in Gdansk to continue preparations for resumption of work there Monday.

Meanwhile, the state mining ministry reported coal production fell to 180 million tons during 1981, the lowest since 1974, United Press International reported, and more than 5 million tons below the figure that officials had earlier estimated was the bare minimum to provide wintertime energy reserves.

Radio Warsaw also announced that a new legislative system had been decreed that will allow procedural shortcuts for enactment of laws during the period of martial law.

"The aim of the guidelines is to speed up and simplify legislative work in matters of essential significance for the state and society," the radio said, according to the Foreign Broadcast Information Service, a U.S. government monitoring agency.

"For the period for which martial law in is force," it said, "the obligation to submit draft legal acts for consultation with nonstate organs is suspended."