This dispatch is based on information arriving from Poland:
Poland's Roman Catholic primate, Archbishop Jozef Glemp, said Wednesday night that declarations signed by workers under government coercion renouncing their membership in Solidarity are "invalid."
In a sermon to 3,000 worshipers jammed into St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw's Old City, Glemp also criticized prison conditions for Poles interned by martial-law authorities and implied that the church knew of more deaths than the eight officially announced as resulting from worker protests.
"We would not like to see a society divided into the authorities, which order and coerce, and into subjects, who are silent and who hate," Glemp said.
Polish authorities launched a sharp attack on Solidarity activists yesterday, saying they were inspired and financed by the Central Intelligence Agency and the West German intelligence service. Although such charges have been made frequently by the Soviet Union during the last three weeks, the Polish government until now had limited itself to criticizing U.S. reaction to the Dec. 13 martial-law declaration.
An article in the Communist Party daily Trybuna Ludu, later broadcast on Warsaw television, said, "It has been known for some time that the imperialist intelligence and special services are greatly interested in the activities of antisocialist and antistate groups in Poland. They have tried to provide them with inspiration and finances.
"The...CIA and BND West German Federal Intelligence Service are the forefront of these operations," the article continued. "A well-financed network of agents and informants--enemies of people's Poland and enemies of socialism--has supplied and continues to supply, according to reports and internal assessments of the BND, a good deal of political information about Poland."
Included among the subversive intelligence activities, the report said, was "the subversive U.S. broadcasting station in Munich, Radio Free Europe," whose chairman "is a highly placed CIA agent."
The U.S.-funded Radio Free Europe's vice president for U.S. operations, William Buell, said in Washington that the chairman of its board is Baton Rouge, La., publisher Douglas Manship, and that the charge is "false and childish."
For the past several weeks, the Soviet Union has been jamming Radio Free Europe and other Western broadcasts into Poland, and has charged that they are devices by which the West is trying to promote the Polish crisis. Radio Free Europe beams Western news reports about the situation into Poland, where communications and the flow of information are tightly controlled by the government.
The Army newspaper Zolnierz Wolnosci accused Andrej Rozpochowski, a Solidarity activist from Katowice, yesterday of meeting a "Mr. Freeman" at the U.S. Embassy in Rome "to find out whether the United States would be inclined to grant financial aid if the present government were overthrown and Solidarity took over power." Mr. Freeman, who was not further identified by the newspaper, "did not hide his CIA links," the newspaper said.
Meanwhile, a typewritten statement purporting to come from "Solidarity leaders still at liberty," and circulated in underground channels, disassociated the union from talks that the government has reported are under way with "union activists," including Solidarity members.
Government officials have said that the talks, which were first officially reported by the Polish news agency PAP on Jan. 5, have been taking place daily at the Ministry for Trade Union Affairs in Warsaw. They described them as "preliminary consultations" to establish guidelines for the emergence of a new independent union.
The Solidarity statement, however, said that "the union authorities are not empowered, nor will they allow, any of their members remaining at liberty to conduct such talks."
The statement, which was signed simply "members of Solidarity's national leadership," said that the government was attempting to confuse society in order to find a way out of the deadlock it has made for itself. "Another purpose of these fictitious talks with anonymous activists is the authorities' wish to prepare the working class for catastrophic increases in the cost of living."
Another statement signed by the same group outlined 10 conditions for national agreement, none of which is likely to be acceptable to the authorities. They included: lifting of martial law, release of all detainees, restoration of banned institutions and a legal investigation by the parliament into those responsible for declaring martial law.
Glemp's sermon Wednesday night repeated themes he had touched upon in a private letter to Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, Poland's martial-law chief, on Dec. 28. In the letter, as reported by Solidarity sources, the primate criticized a circular sent to all government offices ordering the dismissal of officials who refused to give up their Solidarity membership.
The circular was signed by Gen. Michal Janiszewski, director of the prime minister's private office, who has since emerged as one of the key members of the informal group now running the country.
Glemp also reportedly said in the letter that mistakes in personnel policy committed under previous, now-discredited Communist regimes in Poland were being repeated: dynamic, highly motivated individuals were having to make way for careerists and opportunists.
In his sermon, Glemp said Catholics face three problems demanding "moral reflection" in the present situation: their attitude toward martial law itself, the prolongation of the internments of many people, and widespread dismissals from jobs for ideological reasons.
He said that "several miners were killed and other deaths also occurred" as a result of martial law. The authorities have acknowledged that seven miners died in a clash on Dec. 16 at the Wujek coal mine near Katowice and that an eighth person died of wounds suffered in street fighting in Gdansk.
Glemp stressed that "revenge is the worst way of righting wrongs" and repeated his call to avoid bloodshed. The primate said that conditions in various internment centers around the country varied, and that standards outside the Warsaw area were worse than at such centers near the capital, where the authorities have permitted official visits by key churchmen, including himself.
He said he saw contempt and hostility between women prisoners and a guard at one center he visited near Warsaw and said "that division observed on the doorstep of a prison cell is spreading ever wider in society, and carries with it moral implications."
In what was interpreted as a sign of growing government confidence that martial law was succeeding, Western observers reported the withdrawal yesterday from the Warsaw area of up to half the estimated 40,000 troops that had been stationed around the city since Dec. 13. The observers said that two out of four divisions of troops, including most of the 16th Armored Division, had been pulled back, apparently to their home bases.
"They're probably satisfied that Warsaw is fairly peaceful now and there won't be any serious challenge to the government," one observer said.
The withdrawal nonetheless left seven times the normal number of troops stationed around the city. The Army so far has been used to create an outer security cordon, while police and special military security forces have borne the brunt of the action.
In another Polish news report yesterday, Trybuna Ludu, in an apparent reference to the United States, said that "there are governments which, while assuring that they wish the Polish nation well, do not shun exerting political pressure and applying economic restrictions aimed against our entire society. For these governments, the Polish issues are only a fragment of a big political game.
"Poland," the article concluded, "does not pose a threat to any state and on the same principle it does not agree to her interests being endangered. The sooner the fact is taken into account that the pressures against Poland are a sort of subversive action aimed against European security, the sooner it will be possible to say that a threat of perturbations in East-West relations has been averted."
Wire services also reported the following Poland-related developments:
Officials from seven leading U.S. and Western European banks met with attorneys yesterday to discuss legal aspects of Poland's massive $26 billion debt, banking sources in London said. The executives issued no statement at the end of their day-long session, but were expected to report back to a group representing 501 Western banks owed money by Poland.
The bankers discussed ways Poland might pay about $350 million in interest on loans due in 1981, according to the banking sources, who asked not to be identified. They said a Polish request for rescheduling of payments due last year on $2.4 billion in principal depended on repayment of the overdue interest. Last Sunday, Western sources reported that Poland had come up with the $350 million it needed to avoid technical default on its debt and sources speculated the money came from the Soviet Bloc.
In Prague, the Czechoslovak news agency CTK reported that Soviet, and Hungarian troops plan to join maneuvers in western Czechoslovakia later this month. The war games, called "Druzhba-82," are to deploy 25,000 ground troops near the East German border, not far from West Germany and Poland. There was no immediate indication that the planned exercises had any connection with the turmoil in Poland.