Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig Jr. will take U.S. objections to Soviet pressures on Poland in person to the Kremlin's leadership in a meeting early next week with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko, official sources said yesterday.

The planned discussions in Geneva between Haig and Gromyko, to be announced formally by the two governments today, are also expected to cover a possible Soviet-American summit meeting and the beginning of a new round of talks on the limitation of strategic arms.

However, an early summit meeting between President Reagan and Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev does not seem likely under present circumstances, according to U.S. sources, and it is no longer a matter of course that next week's Haig-Gromyko talks will set a date for the beginning of the long-awaited strategic arms control talks.

Word of Haig's intention to take up the Polish issues with Gromyko next week came from Canadian Foreign Minister Mark MacGuigan, who conferred with the U.S. secretary of state here Tuesday. MacGuigan said Haig regards Poland as being on the agenda of his sessions with Gromyko, as well as "questions of arms control" which were originally planned as the centerpiece of the sessions.

It had been widely anticipated that Haig and Gromyko would use the Geneva meeting to agree on the beginning of restructured strategic arms negotiations, which the Reagan administration has called "START," an acronym for strategic arms reduction talks.

However, officials said a move toward such talks next week is still an open question within the government, with some policymakers questioning whether this is appropriate in view of the Polish situation.

Reagan, following the onset of martial law in Poland, reiterated his interest in a summit meeting with Brezhnev sometime in 1982.

However, Haig in recent private conversations is reported to be emphasizing anew the requirement that such a meeting be well prepared for, while putting less emphasis on the earlier idea that personal communications between heads of state may be more important than ever in a period of crisis.

Haig's shift of emphasis and other hints suggest that an early summit is now unlikely, in the U.S. view.

Next week's Haig-Gromyko discussions will be the second round of a dialogue which began in nine hours of talks between the two men last September at the United Nations. Even then, the shadow of Poland fell across the Soviet-American dialogue, reporters were told by a top American official.

And now, some five weeks after the declaration of martial law, Poland has become an even more important point of contention.

Following up on Reagan's statement to a news conference Tuesday that "the situation in Poland is deteriorating," the State Department issued an unusually lengthy status report yesterday to rebut the Polish government's arguments that life is returning to normal there.

The State Department statement, read by spokesman Alan Romberg, said "there are still no signs of any substantive dialogue with the elected leaders of Solidarity" despite the passage of five weeks of martial law. The statement also charged, among other things, that "thousands remain in detention" and that the number of those detained "reportedly is growing."

Washington's efforts to keep a harsh spotlight on the martial law in Poland come as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization prepares for a special meeting Saturday on U.S. and allied sanctions in the Polish situation.

This meeting, building on last week's conference of Haig and other NATO foreign ministers, is considered of major importance by American officials. U.S. representatives at Saturday's session are expected to speak frankly about what Washington is doing and what sort of responses it expects from allies.

While it is considered unlikely that allied nations will pledge themselves to specific actions in this forum, American officials are expecting to obtain a clearer indication of what is being they are contemplating.

A future meeting of the 10-nation European Economic Community, which includes some of the same members as NATO, is expected to bring sanctions against Poland and the Soviet Union closer to fruition.