Two agents of the federal Drug Enforcement Agency were shot Tuesday night near Cartagena, Colombia, after five men posing as Colombian policemen broke into their hotel room and dragged them off into the jungle at gunpoint.

The two agents, both DEA pilots, are expected to survive.

DEA sources said Kelly McCullough, 39, who is stationed in San Antonio, was shot in the throat by the gunmen. McCullough apparently fell to the ground and pretended to be dead as Charles Martinez, 34, of the Miami DEA office tried to run off through the jungle. Martinez was shot in the shoulder and leg.

Martinez, bleeding, staggered through the jungle until he ran into a Colombian army outpost and was taken to a local hospital, the sources said.

McCullough waited until the gunmen had left and then walked to a village where a priest put him on a bus for Cartagena, a DEA source said. Once there, McCullough took a cab to the hospital.

David Hoover, a spokesman for DEA, said there is no indication who the gunmen were.

Attorney General William French Smith issued a statement saying he was "outraged and saddened by the shooting . . . . The Department of Justice will use every resource at its command to aid in the search for those who carried out this attack, so they are arrested, brought to trial, convicted and punished."

Noting that the Reagan administration has "made an irrevocable commitment to stem the flow of narcotics" into the United States, he said the administration "will not tolerate any efforts to thwart our progress."

The two agents were working on an offshoot of "Operation Tiburon," a 14-month U.S.-Colombian effort to stop the flow of marijuana from Colombia to the United States.

Last week, Smith announced that over the past 18 months Tiburon had resulted in seizure of more than 1.7 million pounds of marijuana by U.S. officials and more than 4.7 million pounds by Colombian authorities.

He called it the most successful, international anti-marijuana campaign in history. Colombia is the source 80 percent of the marijuana available in the United States, most of it grown in the Guajaria Peninsula near Cartagena.