Former secretary of state Henry A. Kissinger has lined up a team of diplomatic and economic superstars, including former British foreign secretary Lord Carrington, to support "Kissinger Associates Inc.," an international consulting firm which is offering its services to blue-chip clients.

The Kissinger firm, for a retainer reported in economic circles to be $250,000 per client, plans to provide "strategic planning" advice to a small number of large clients in the corporate world.

Kissinger is chairman of the new firm, which was formed last month. Its president is retired Gen. Brent Scowcroft, who succeeded Kissinger in November, 1975, as White House national security adviser to President Ford.

Scowcroft said yesterday that the firm plans to supply expert advice on making international business decisions. He said it expects to work more closely with its clients than risk assessment groups, which advise firms on the political and financial policies of foreign nations.

Some clients have already been signed up for the service, according to Scowcroft, but he declined to name them or to disclose the fees being charged.

Among the members of the board of directors signed up for Kissinger Associates, according to Scowcroft:

* Lord Carrington, who resigned as Britain's foreign minister in April to take responsibility for the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands.

* Robert O. Anderson, chairman of Atlantic Richfield Co.

* Per Gyllenhammer, president of Volvo, the Swedish automobile manufacturing firm.

* William D. Rogers, who served as assistant secretary of state for Latin American affairs and undersecretary of state for economic affairs while Kissinger was secretary of state. Rogers is now an attorney in Washington.

Scowcroft said Kissinger Associates, with offices in New York and Washington, will have a small staff of about eight persons. Jeff Cunningham, formerly with a Chase Manhattan Bank-affiliated firm in the Eurocurrency market, is to be its secretary, according to Scowcroft.

Kissinger, since leaving office as secretary of state in early 1977, has served on the international advisory committee of Chase and of Goldman Sachs, a New York investment firm, as well as other business ventures. He has also been affiliated with Georgetown University's Center of Strategic and International Studies, and written two lengthy volumes of his memoirs of government service.

Kissinger was among the first persons to be consulted by George P. Shultz after Shultz was named secretary of state by President Reagan in late June. Kissinger was called in to advise Shultz on the Middle East and subsequently joined Shultz, West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kwan Yew at Shultz' California home.

At his news conference last Friday, Shultz, answering a question, called Kissinger "a wonderful person and a great friend [with] tremendous comprehension of what is going on." He said he expects to "continue to benefit from his [Kissinger's] advice."