Polish Foreign Minister Stefan Olszowski arrived here this morning for consultations with Soviet officials that are expected to focus on the continued internal opposition to the martial-law government of Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski.

The visit appeared to have been hurriedly arranged last week after recent antigovernment demonstrations in Poland.

Olszowski, one of the Polish Politburo members generally thought to enjoy strong support in the Kremlin, was believed to have been dispatched here to calm Soviet concerns about the recent course of events in Poland.

There have been indications of Soviet alarm over the scope of recent protests in which at least five demonstrators were reported killed and 4,000 arrested.

A Tass news agency dispatch said Olszowski and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko discussed bilateral matters and "key international problems of mutual interest." The talks, it said, took place in an atmosphere of "friendship and complete mutual understanding," a phrase suggesting considerable agreement.

During today's negotiations, both Gromyko and Olszowski were quoted as expressing satisfaction that relations between the two countries "continue to develop successfully and grow stronger in all fields."

The phrasing, however, does not obscure Soviet annoyance with the signs of continued weakness of the Polish Communist Party. Moscow's support for Jaruzelski's martial-law rule is based on the assumption that antigovernment activity would fade, that Poland would resume its "normal work rhythm" and that the party would gradually restore its position.

Soviet commentaries on street clashes two weeks ago between demonstrators and police in a number of Polish cities stressed that the "forces of counterrevolution" in Poland have not yet been crushed.

Diplomatic sources here said it was expected that Gromyko and other Soviet officials would seek to impress on Olszowski the need for tougher measures against underground opposition as well as a far stronger effort to restore the authority of the party.

Olszowski has opposed many of the reforms that were introduced under pressure from the independent trade union Solidarity and had been publicly critical of various Polish dissidents. Against this background, his assessment of Poland's internal situation carries considerable weight in Moscow.