A 23-year-old Silver Spring man pleaded guilty in Arlington Circuit Court yesterday to the robbery of a Lee Highway supermarket two years ago in which four employes were locked in a subzero freezer.

Frederick D. Peters entered the plea before Judge Thomas R. Monroe, who set sentencing for Jan. 28.

Peters, who pleaded guilty to two charges of robbery, three of abduction and two of using a firearm in the commission of a felony, could receive as many as five life sentences.

Peters is now serving a 20-year sentence in Maryland for the 1981 robbery of a Wheaton Safeway store in which the manager was shot in the back, according to Arlington Commonwealth's Attorney Henry Hudson.

Hudson said Kenneth J. Dobson, who accompanied Peters in the robery of the Grand Union supermarket at 4720 Lee Hwy., has already pleaded guilty to robbery and firearms charges in the case.

Peters' trial was delayed, Hudson said, because he fought extradition from Maryland.

Randy Evans, the Grand Union's manager, testified yesterday that as he arrived at the store at 6:30 a.m. on Dec. 13, 1980, Peters put a gun to his head and ordered him to show him where the meat cooler was.

Employes were herded into the freezer, which was kept at 10 degrees below zero, Evans said, but he was ordered out of the freezer and told to open a safe.

Peters "told me, 'if you don't get it right the first time, you're dead,'" Evans said. "I was terrified."

Evans said he was robbed of $180 by the two men, who took $5,000 in cash from the safe and a large number of money orders and checks.

Evans said he was then locked in the freezer with three employes. They managed to break down the door 15 minutes later.