The Senate Foreign Relations Committee report on the controversial nomination of Kenneth L. Adelman to head the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency reflects a deep split among the panel's 17 members over the nomination. The report was released yesterday.

The nine-member majority that wants President Reagan's choice rejected described Adelman as "not qualified for the important position" because his "interest in arms control was. . . more general than specific, his familiarity with the broad range of arms control issues low, his background in . . . negotiations shallow, his approach political rather than substantive."

The seven Republicans on the panel who support Adelman said he "possesses the requisite experience and intellectual prowess needed for this post" and then turned around and criticized committee colleagues who want the vote on Adelman's nomination to be "a referendum on President Reagan's overall arms control policy."

Sen. Edward Zorinsky (D-Neb.), the lone committee Democrat to vote for Adelman, dampened that support somewhat by saying that he "decided to accept Ambassador Adelman's representations that he will seek earnestly to achieve arms control agreements, notwithstanding interpretations of his previous writings and statements to the contrary."

In other developments:

* Sen. Gary Hart (D-Colo.) yesterday called on Reagan to dismiss Ambassador Edward L. Rowny, whose memo to Adelman criticized members of Rowny's team in Geneva negotiating a strategic nuclear arms reduction treaty with the Soviets. Hart told a news conference that senators who had read the memo, now in the possession of the Foreign Relations Committee, told him it recommends that Hart "should not be permitted to return to Geneva to participate in arms control negotiations."

The senator, who has visited the negotiators regularly as an observer to the talks, called Rowny's suggestion a sign that he "does not fundamentally understand our system of government."

According to Senate sources, the memo also lists Rep. Bob Carr (D-Mich.) as another legislator Rowny would bar from the Geneva talks. Like Hart, Carr has made frequent visits to the arms control negotiations.

* The Rowny memo also has raised the possibility of an embarrassing security violation, according to Senate sources. Among those identified as being in the Geneva delegation in the five-page document delivered to Adelman is a person described as belonging to the CIA.

Sources said that person operates under diplomatic cover in Geneva and thus his identification should have carried a high classification. The Rowny memo, however, did not carry any classification.