"First of all we wore the yellow star. What can I say to you? I was terrible hurt. It was a terrible thing. We couldn't go out from our house at certain times of the day. They didn't want the Jews on the street. And just it happens one time I was on the street and there was an air raid and they wouldn't let me in the air raid shelter that I was a Jew. So I had to stand at the gate."

--Ilona Ginsburg, 68, of Los Angeles, retired candy company representative. Born in Hungary; imprisoned at Auschwitz.

"We knew there was danger coming in. I was maybe 20, but what could I do? Why didn't I flee? In the Jewish tradition the family is always knit very close. I had a chance to escape. How could I in my mind save myself and leave my father and mother helpless? Of course, it didn't do them any good that I stayed."

--Edward Golfer, 62, Silver Spring carryout owner. Born in Kaunas, Lithuania; imprisoned at Stutthof and Dachau.

"Every day, the Germans would come with trucks and round people up. Polish people would even show the Nazis where Jews were living, but there were some good Polish people. The Polish people had to stand in line for food, but they could get food the Jewish people couldn't. We had a neighbor, she was half Polish and half German. She told me that I could come with her on the food line, but just to wear a cape and hide the star we were all required to wear on our arms. When I was going home with the food, one of our Polish neighbors saw me and he said he was going to call the Nazis. So I ran all the way home and gave my mother the food so she could hide it around the house. We were so frightened, but no one ever came."

--Linda Fox, 64, Rockville grocery clerk. Born in Sosnowiec, Poland; imprisoned in a work camp in Poland and worked in flax factory.

"When the Nazis came in, right away it was bad. They were shooting from buses into crowds, at people on bread lines. They took out certain people for torture . . . German soldiers searched and took everything away. We remained without a penny to live from. Everything pointed to the bad times we were facing. Then they started to build a wall separating the Jews, starving the people. There was such sickness. People had no choice. We were ready to go to the death camps for a piece of bread."

--Samuel Goldstein, 69, of Brooklyn. Born in Kozienice, Poland.