In an extraordinary attack that appears to reflect fresh Soviet anxieties about the situation in Poland, a key Soviet weekly assailed Poland's Deputy Premier Mieczyslaw Rakowski today in a long article that linked him to people with views "alien" to socialism.

Since Poland's ruler, Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, imposed martial law in December 1981, the Soviets have avoided direct criticism of Polish leaders, although they have frequently criticized the banned Solidarity union and the Roman Catholic Church. Today's attack singled out by name a number of Poland's prominent intellectuals and journalists, and one of its principal, government-controlled newspapers.

The Moscow journal New Times did not mention the name of Rakowski, who is a close associate of Jaruzelski, but identified him as the former editor in chief of the Warsaw weekly Polityka. New Times quoted passages from Rakowski's interview early last year with the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci on what he suggested was the bankruptcy of the Polish Communist Party and its inability to organize the society and pull the country out of crisis.

Rakowski's view was proven wrong, the journal said, because the Polish party did manage to defend the state.

Diplomatic observers said today's article appeared designed to pressure Jaruzelski to move against reformist elements in the party and tighten discipline. It is highly unusual for the Soviets to criticize in this fashion senior officials of allied countries.

The 3,000-word article focused its criticism on Polityka, saying it is publishing the views of persons who remain "ideological opponents" of socialism and who advocate the sort of political pluralism envisaging rehabilitation of Solidarity.

Rakowski left his post as editor of Polityka to join the government following the outbreak of labor unrest three years ago. However, he is believed to have continued to exercise dominant influence on the weekly.

The main thrust of the article was directed against reformist elements in the Polish party who, the journal said, have learned the art of "political mimicry" and who are advancing the ideas of political pluralism as part of Poland's "own, specific model of socialism."

The article indicated that such people include Rakowski and other intellectuals who are writing in Polityka. They are described as "opponents of socialism" who are advancing an alternative negating the principles of "scientific socialism."

New Times attacked articles in Polityka suggesting the inevitability of future crisis in Poland and the notion of "programs from different epochs and other geographic areas." Which epochs and geographic areas "do they have in mind?" the journal asked. "When one reads Polityka, it is hard to judge where the Polish United Workers' Communist party and Poland are heading."

Polityka, the Soviet journal said, is "allergic to real socialism" and it views "real socialism" the same way the West German daily Die Welt or The New York Times view it.

Is Poland's socialism, the journal asked, "an alien model imposed on the Poles from outside?" It criticized the Warsaw weekly for asserting that the decisions of Yalta and Potsdam--conferences in 1945 that assured Soviet domination of Eastern Europe--"are not eternal" and that earlier international agreements, such as those concluded in Vienna and Versailles, have collapsed, "although those who signed them believed that they have established orders for eternity."

"The allusion is more than transparent," New Times said.