Science spending in Japan and West Germany is w0105 ----- r a BC-05/31/83-MILITY 05-31 0001 A Big Military Seems to Mean Less Spending on the Sciences By Philip J. Hilts Washington Post Staff Writer
Science spending in Japan and West Germany is on a long, steep rise that is unencumbered by heavy defense spending, while science spending by the United States and other western nations with big defense bills has shown a decline over the past 15 years, according to a new study by the Congressional Research Service.
The study said that it is not necessary to conclude that there should be less defense spending. "Rather the issue is whether more U.S. civilian research and development is required to offset the trends indicated in the data," the report said.
The study shows a steady change beginning in about 1964, when Japan, West Germany, France and Britain each spent about 10 to 12 percent of what the United States did on civilian research, as counted in U.S. dollars.
By 1979, the picture had changed:
In Japan, spending grew from $3.8 billion to $21 billion per year--jumping from 10 percent of U.S. civilian research to almost 50 percent of it. West Germany rose from $3.5 billion to $17.3 billion per year--rising from 12 percent of U.S. spending to 41 percent.
Together, the four nations' expenditures rose from about 45 percent of the United States' spending to about 121 percent.
In 1979, the United States spent $42.5 billion on civilian research while Japan and Germany together almost matched that, spending $38 billion. The spending of France and Britain remained stagnant.
When civilian research is counted as a percent of spending in the whole economy, the numbers are more dramatic.
The United States peaked in 1966, when it spent 1.96 percent of its gross national product on civilian research. Since then it has declined to 1.81 percent of GNP in 1981.
Japan spent 1.52 percent in 1964, but 2.09 percent in 1979. West Germany spent 1.26 percent in 1964, but 2.26 percent in 1979.