About $1.8 billion in overdue child support payments were collected from absentee parents in fiscal 1982, up $150 million from the previous year, according to a report by the Health and Human Services Department.

The department, in cooperation with the states, helps locate parents who have left home and are not supporting their children, establishes paternity and makes them pay. About 45 percent of the collections were on behalf of children receiving welfare, the rest for children entitled only to support.

The report said federal-state administrative cost of the program was $592 million, three-quarters of which was paid by the federal government. Paternity was established in 173,621 cases.

As part of the enforcement effort, 560,000 names were submitted to the Internal Revenue Service to have amounts deducted from any tax refunds owed the individuals. For tax year 1981, collections were made in 265,000 cases, totaling $168 million.

In fiscal 1982, the figures show, Pennsylvania topped the nation in collections with $255 million, followed by California, $247 million; Michigan, $240 million, and New York, $151 million.

For Maryland, the total was $55.8 million; for Virginia, $12.2 million, and for the District of Columbia, $2.6 million