Twenty states paid more in tax dollars to support federal grant programs than their state and local governments received in grants for fiscal 1982, according to calculations by the Tax Foundation, a nonprofit tax research organization.

Texas residents paid the highest amount -- $1.59 -- for each dollar of federal aid coming into Texas. They were followed by Connecticut ($1.40), Florida ($1.30) and Kansas and Colorado (both $1.29).

At the other end of the scale, Vermont and Mississippi residents paid 57 cents for every dollar they received, while District residents paid only 23 cents. Compared to fiscal 1981, the costs of the federal aid received rose in 22 states, fell in 24 states and the District of Columbia and remained the same in four states.

The figures do not include matching funds that state and local governments may have to pay to receive the aid, which the Office of Management and Budget estimates averages to 45 cents for every dollar of aid received. Nor do the figures include administrative or overhead costs that the states must bear. The total tax burden for grants is assumed to equal grant payments. Each state's burden is calculated by applying the percentage of total federal tax revenues its residents contribute.