Sen. Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.) disclaimed the millionaire's status attributed to him in an article yesterday and said through his office that most of the assets belong to his wife, Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Hanford Dole. The Doles have assets of $2,780,000, according to a joint statement as of last Dec. 31. Of this, said Jo-Anne Coe, his administrative director, about $690,000, including a $375,000 Watergate apartment and a $97,000 condominium in Arlington for Dole's daughter, is in Dole's name. Another $500,000 is listed as jointly owned silver, furnishings and the like. The rest is on Mrs. Dole's side of the ledger, primarily in savings accounts, common stock, money market and mutual funds.

The Senate refused yesterday to force what one angry member called its "rich boys" to put their unearned income into special trusts and bring their life styles down to the levels already imposed on those who rely on the lecture circuit to help make ends meet.

The special trust proposal by Sen. Jake Garn (R-Utah) was rejected, 58 to 34, with the Senate's wealthiest Democrats in the forefront of the opposition.

Garn offered his amendment after working up a rich lather of indignation over the rule adopted last week restricting senators' outside earnings from speaking fees and the like to 30 percent of Senate salaries.

He said he wanted to impose the same rule on the the "rich boys" and "hypocrites" in the Senate who could afford to sit back and enjoy life with the unearned income from their investments and inherited wealth.

As it stands now, Garn said, "we have a double standard," one for the affluent and one for those who don't have "a rich wife" or "rich parents" who left behind a few million dollars.

"Some of us married for love," Garn said at one point, drawing a smattering of moans from the Senate galleries.

He offered his proposal as an amendment to the $1.5 billion legislative appropriations bill for fiscal 1984. It would have required senators to put unearned income into special accounts and, in addition to their pay, would have limited their withdrawals to no more than 30 percent of their salaries each year.

The resulting cap of $20,940 would have been the same as the one laid down on honoraria last week, when senators also voted to give themselves a pay raise to $69,800 a year.

At least 61 senators would have been affected by Garn's proposal, according to an Associated Press compilation of senatorial disclosure statements for 1982. Fifty-six of them--29 Democrats and 27 Republicans with unearned incomes of more than $21,000 a year--took part in yesterday's vote involving 92 senators. Of the 29 Democrats, 26 voted against Garn's amendment and three for it. Of the 27 Republicans, 15 voted nay and 12 yea.

The Democratic distaste for the measure was even more pronounced on Millionaire's Row. Of the 10 voting Democratic senators whose disclosure statements show assets of $1 million or more (a list that does not include Sen. Edward M. Kennedy of Massachusetts, presumably because of his family trusts), all 10 voted no, as did Kennedy. The 10 Republicans in the same category split down the middle.

Democrats with assets of at least $1 million who voted against the bill were Lloyd Bentsen (Tex.), Jeff Bingaman (N.M.), Lawton Chiles (Fla.), Dennis DeConcini (Ariz.), Thomas F. Eagleton (Mo.), John Glenn (Ohio), Frank R. Lautenberg (N.J.), Russell B. Long (La.), Alan J. Dixon (Ill.), and Claiborne Pell (R.I.).

The 10 wealthiest Republicans taking part in the vote split down the middle. Sens. Robert J. Dole (Kan.), Nancy Landon Kassebaum (Kan.), Malcolm Wallop (Wyo.), Chic Hecht (Nev.), and Arlen Specter (Pa.) voted with Garn. Sens. William L. Armstrong (Colo.), Rudy Boschwitz (Minn), John C. Danforth (Mo.), John Heinz (Pa.), and John W. Warner (Va.) voted no.

The Republicans who voted against Garn were consistent in that they all voted against last week's pay raise and accompanying limit on honoraria. But eight of the 10 Democrats--all but Dixon and Pell--voted for the pay raise and for the honoraria limit before opposing the limit on unearned income.

The Senate approved the $1.5 billion appropriations bill by 78 to 15. It includes a provision stripping Architect of the Capitol George M. White of his chauffeured rides to and from work.