Signs of a breakthrough in California budget negotiations appeared last night as Gov. George Deukmejian (R) met with top legislators.

In Pennsylvania, lawmakers remained upset about a $6.9 billion budget slashed by $1.1 billion and signed Monday by Gov. Richard L. Thornburgh (R).

Among Thornburgh's cuts, which he said would result in layoffs of 2,000 state workers, were local education aid and the entire House operating fund. The budget freed 230,000 welfare and payroll checks frozen since July 1.

The California Assembly approved, 72 to 0, with no debate, a bill allowing the state to issue checks to 130,000 disabled workers, and Deukmejian agreed to sign it despite a 12-day budget deadlock.

The vote, followed by 36-to-0 Senate approval, came as Deukmejian met privately for more than two hours with the legislature's two Democratic leaders.

Assembly Speaker Willie Brown and Senate President David Roberti said they are close to agreement on $800 million extra for schools, without tax increases favored by Democrats and opposed by Deukmejian.

The legislature had approved an almost identical bill last week, but Deukmejian would not agree to sign. CAPTION: Picture, Gov. Richard L. Thornburg . . . cut state budget by $1.1 billion.