A bipartisan congressional group yesterday introduced resolutions in the House and Senate urging the Reagan administration not to export atomic reactor components to India unless "stronger nuclear nonproliferation guarantees" are obtained from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's government.

Secretary of State George P. Shultz promised last month that the United States would help India obtain spare parts from other supplier countries for its two reactors at Tarapur, near Bombay. He also agreed that the United States would supply components not obtainable elsewhere.

India has cast its effort to obtain the parts as a "safety and humanitarian issue," arguing that it needs the replacement components in order to operate the two General Electric reactors safely.

Congressional opponents of the sale have contended, however, that the United States ought not to provide any atomic assistance to India in view of that country's continued refusal to open all its nuclear facilities to international inspection.

The United States ended shipments of fuel to Tarapur two years ago for that reason.

Assistant Secretary of State Powell A. Moore wrote Sen. John Glenn (D-Ohio), one of the sponsors of the resolutions opposing the sale, stating that President Reagan decided to provide the parts out of concern over "the health and safety of the people working at the reactors and living nearby."

But Glenn contended that the safety argument is "misleading" and "obscures the true picture of nuclear safety at Tarapur."