Congressional resolutions intended to thwart President Reagan's controversial plan to sell the nation's weather satellites to the private sector are expected to be introduced this week.

Identical resolutions are to be introduced by five Republicans in the Senate and eight Democrats in the House, according to congressional staff members, who predict quick and overwhelming passage in both chambers.

The resolutions declare that it is the sense of the Congress that "it is not appropriate at this time" to turn weather satellites over to private enterprise.

The resolutions would not have the force of law or prevent the sale of satellites. However, administration officials and members of Congress said that it probably would be illegal to sell the satellites without explicit congressional approval.

"This will put everyone on notice that the Congress has no intention of approving" the sale of weather satellites, a key congressional aide said.

The administration is said to be within weeks of asking companies to bid on the satellites. But Ray Kammer, the Commerce Department official handling the sale, predicted that passage of the resolutions would "have a cooling effect" on bidders' enthusiasm. "It certainly does not help further my job," he said.

About 10 corporations have expressed interest in acquiring the satellites. One of the firms is the Communications Satellite Corp. (Comsat), which several years ago first suggested to the Commerce Department that the satellites be sold.

Kammer said it is difficult to know how many companies will become serious bidders because they "already know there are a lot of congressmen that don't like the idea" of selling weather satellites.

The proposed sale has generated strong opposition since being announced March 8 by Reagan. After hearings, Congress passed a joint resolution declaring that no sale should take place without congressional approval of its terms.

In April, Commerce Deputy Secretary Guy W. Fiske, was told to recuse himself from any further role in the sale because he had discussed job offers with Comsat at the same time he was guiding that company's proposal through Commerce.

The department's general counsel, Sherman E. Unger, wrote in a memo that Fiske's actions "created the appearance of . . . using public office for private gain . . . ."

Fiske has resigned from Commerce. He is being investigated by the Justice Department for possible criminal conflict of interest. He has denied any impropriety.

The administration has gone ahead with its plan to sell weather, land and planned ocean satellites.

Congressional opposition to the weather-satellite sale has been led by Rep. James H. Scheuer (D-N.Y.). Scheuer said he has found "solid, bipartisan support for this legislation. I am confident that quick action will be taken in the Senate, and the House will concur.

"The only question will be how far the administration is willing to go in continuing to support a transfer proposal that is transparently not in the interests of the American people and simply designed to benefit one large, profit-making corporation."

The resolutions declare that the government traditionally has collected and distributed to the public information about the weather, and has freely exchanged this information with other countries. The resolutions contend that selling weather satellites would create a "government-subsidized monopoly and jeopardize the cost efficiency and reliability of data gathered by civil meteorological satellites."