Jordan's King Hussein rejected today an Israeli offer for peace talks, calling it "an exercise in subterfuge and deception" designed to buy time for Israel to carry out its "expansionist" aims.

In an unusually tough speech opening the regular session of the Jordanian parliament, the king also strongly criticized the United States for pursuing policies in the Middle East that "provided Israel with further cause for intransigence," and he defended his decision last week to resume full diplomatic relations with Egypt. Jordan is the first Arab state to restore ties with Egypt after a 5 1/2-year break following the 1979 Camp David peace agreement between Egypt and Israel.

He said that maintaining the Arab boycott of Egypt would only play into the hands of Israel by perpetuating the disunity in the Arab world, which he described as being in a state of "disarray, paralysis, conflicting vision, general decrepitude . . . collapse . . . and confusion."

A high-ranking Syrian leader was quoted Monday as suggesting that Hussein risked assassination for restoring relations with Egypt, The Associated Press reported.

[The AP said government-run Syrian radio quoted Vice President Zuhair Masharqa as telling a rally in Damascus: "Jordanian leaders should expect their fate will not be different from that of the late Anwar Sadat." Sadat, the Egyptian president who signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1979, was assassinated by Moslem extremists in Cairo Oct. 6, 1981.]

In his speech, Hussein said that the Arabs had sought a peaceful settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict but that Israel had responded with "scorn and obstinacy" and the United States with "procrastination and hesitancy."

"I wish to declare from this rostrum that the recent Israeli call for the negotiation of a peaceful settlement is nothing more than an exercise in subterfuge and deception," Hussein said of the invitation new Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres extended to the Jordanian monarch two weeks ago.

"Neither the conditions which accompanied the call nor the composition of the present Israeli government, nor, for that matter, the inclinations of the Israeli people as evinced by the recent elections, point to any seriousness in this regard."

Hussein said Israel could show good faith by affirming its support of United Nations resolutions calling on Israel to withdraw from all territories captured in the 1967 Middle East war in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel. The Arabs will never give up claims to even "one iota" of the occupied land, Hussein said, nor will they "forfeit one small stone of our mosques, churches or holy places no matter how long it takes or how great the sacrifice."

In Israel, Peres reacted swiftly and caustically to Hussein's speech, but the indications both from the prime minister's remarks and those of others were that they felt the king's biting words were intended more for the consumption of Arab radicals and were not designed to close the door on possible future negotiations.

Nimrod Novick, political adviser to Peres, said on Israeli radio, "A possibility for progress in relations with Egypt and Jordan is being expressed maybe not so much in words but by the actions of King Hussein . . . . It is not a new phenomenon for leaders to make tough comments while taking positive steps."

In a written statement, Peres said, "Israel will continue to believe in peace, to profess peace and to propose negotiations -- not as a stratagem but as a real and serious need of all peoples living in the Middle East.

But Peres said sarcastically that Jordan should not expect to receive a prize for having attacked Israel in the 1967 war. "No one gets a prize for making mistakes, and no compensation is paid for aggression," he said.

Peres added, "Either peace is needed by both sides or else it cannot be realized. Anyone who rejects the peace will have to pay the price of his rejection."

Hussein, in defending the decision to resume relations with Egypt, lauded Egypt's stature and role as a leading Arab state that had made immense sacrifices in the past for Arab rights, and had more recently supported the Palestinians, Iraqis and Lebanese in their various conflicts. He said Egypt had embarked on a "different course" under President Hosni Mubarak, an apparent reference to the cooling of Egyptian-Israeli relations following the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982.

"Determination to keep Egypt outside the Arab framework could only contribute to further paralysis and disintegration of the Arab body," he said. "We hope that our decision will be followed by others so that inter-Arab relations are once again restored to their normal conditions of purity."

[In Manama, Bahrain, today, Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat described Hussein's move as "an internal affair of Jordan," but he added that "It's necessary that Egypt, the pioneer of Arab struggle, return to Arab ranks away from Camp David."]

The king's remarks follow a week in which several Jordanian officials repeatedly have stressed that the move was not related to any decision to join either revived Camp David peace talks or to begin bargaining on the basis of a rumored new American initiative based on President Reagan's September 1982 Middle East peace plan.

In his speech today, Hussein reiterated support for solving the Arab-Israeli conflict through an international peace conference that would include the Soviet Union and the PLO. That idea, supported by other Arabs, and promoted by the Soviets, has been rejected by the Reagan administration.

In another matter, Hussein said Jordan no longer would rely heavily on U.S. arms "in light of the negative American stand with regard to the legitimate provision of Jordan with defensive weapons."