Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko tonight called on the United States to take "practical actions" that would lead to an improvement in Soviet-American relations.

Addressing a Kremlin rally marking the 67th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution, Gromyko asserted that the United States in recent years has "done much to break everything positive that was created earlier by joint efforts."

Referring to statements by President Reagan and other senior U.S. officials recently about their interest in more constructive relations between the two superpowers, Gromyko said that it was unclear whether such statements reflected "transient considerations or something more substantial. . . . An answer to this question should be given by the United States itself by its pratical actions. There are possibilities for this. The question is whether they will be used by Washington.

"At any rate, those who formulate and will formulate the policy of the U.S. will have to make efforts to make more credible their words favoring better Soviet-American relations since the American administration has lost a great deal of its credibility over the last few years.

"Today we are saying most definitely that the Soviet Union has no hostile intentions toward the United States. We offer peace and peace only. We are ready to cooperate with it in the interests of strengthening international security. It is the peoples of our two countries and all other nations who stand to gain from this."

It was clear from Gromyko's remarks that Moscow assumed Reagan would be returned to office in today's U.S. election. The same assessment was implicit in the sole article on the elections published in the Soviet press today and written by an expert on U.S. affairs, Radomir Bogdanov.

President Konstantin Chernenko and most of Moscow-based members of the ruling Politburo attended the rally at the Kremlin Palace of Congresses. Absent from the lineup was Defense Minister Marshal Dmitri Ustinov, 76, who was said to have been slightly ill recently.

Gromyko's 75-minute speech included a lengthy discussion of Moscow's economic and social policies as well a general review of international affairs. In the initial section of his foreign policy remarks, the 75-year-old foreign minister assailed Reagan's rearmament drive, called for an end to a ring of U.S. military basis around the Soviet Union and denounced what he called Washington's policy of "state terrorism."

Gromyko also delivered a scathing attack on West Germany's leadership and denounced those who "call in question the historic Yalta and Potsdam accords." This was a reference to the wartime meetings of the leaders of the Soviet Union, the United States and Britain where the post-World War II order in Europe was decided.

Referring to statements in Bonn on the German question, Gromyko said that "reckless heads are dreaming . . . of a revision of state frontiers in Europe that the German Reich had burnt up in the fire of the Second World War."

In what was one of the strongest statements here against future chances for German reunification, Gromyko said that "revanchists and semi-revanchists of all hues and shades . . . should know that the frontiers of our friend and ally, the German Democratic Republic, are inviolable and will remain inviolable."

The term revanchists has been applied to Christian Democratic politicians in Bonn during the past months following a deterioration in Soviet-West German relations.

In the final section of his speech, in which Gromyko addressed the issue of current Soviet-American relations, his tone was conciliatory and generally in line with Chernenko's recent pronouncemenmts on the subject.

Gromyko reiterated four issues that Chernenko had advanced in mid-October suggesting that resolution of at least one of them would open the way to an improvement in relations. The four issues involved outer space, a mutual freeze on nuclear weapons, ratification by the United States of test-ban treaties and a pledge by the United States not to be the first to use nuclear arms.