The White House will send a classified interim report to Congress this weekend identifying 19 Soviet violations or possible violations of arms control agreements, according to administration sources.

The report, which will go to the chairmen of the House and Senate Armed Services committees, will update seven violations first reported by President Reagan to Congress last January and outline 12 other "areas where compliance questions have been raised," an administration source said.

It may also include a conclusion that analysis to date "gives substantiation to earlier reports that the Soviets are engaged in a pattern of violation of arms control agreements," another administration official said.

The report marks another round in the battle by conservatives on Capitol Hill and inside the administration to make past Soviet compliance an issue in arms control talks.

Its promised delivery prior to the planned Jan. 7-8 meeting between Secretary of State George P. Schultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gromyko was hailed yesterday by Sen. Steve Symms (R-Idaho) as "a solid victory for those senators who have insistently lobbied for this report for several years now."

Past U.S. accusations of Soviet treaty violations have drawn bitter responses from Moscow. Yesterday, an administration official said, "We have had to look at the impact of a report like this on the discussions." But he added that the decision was made to go ahead with the interim information and delay the broader analysis until February, when another congressionally mandated report is due.

The administration's initial report to Congress charging Soviet violations of arms control agreements was announced Jan. 13, only five days before a largely unproductive meeting between Shultz and Gromyko in Stockholm.

Currently, preparations are continuing within the administration for the forthcoming Shultz-Gromyko session, which is charged with paving the way for resumption of arms control negotiations.

A senior White House official said that Reagan has not decided whether to name a "special envoy" to concentrate full-time on negotiations with the Soviets but that, if any such job is created, the occupant will report to the president through Shultz rather than having an independent position.

White House spokesman Larry Speakes said Reagan will meet his senior foreign policy advisers Friday afternoon to discuss the Shultz-Gromyko session. Another official said that the likely topic will be "Soviet objectives and strategies," and that Reagan is likely to meet about once a week in the immediate future on Soviet policy.

Detailed options for Reagan are being discussed in a senior arms control policy committee chaired by Robert C. McFarlane, presidential national security affairs adviser, and including key middle-level officials such as Assistant Secretary of State Richard R. Burt and Assistant Secretary of Defense Richard N. Perle.

According to administration officials, the most serious Soviet violations being considered include:

* A new radar in the central U.S.S.R., which they say is prohibited by the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty.

* Development of the SS25 intercontinental missile, which seems to exceed SALT II treaty limits on new ICBMs.

* Two underground nuclear tests in September and October, estimated by U.S. intelligence at about 600 kilotons each despite the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty limiting tests to 150 kilotons.