West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl plans to urge President Reagan to establish formal consultative channels with the European allies during future arms control talks with the Soviet Union when the two leaders meet at the White House Friday, according to senior officials here.

The Bonn government is eager to see a system of regular allied meetings, which existed during negotiations on intermediate-range missiles last year, extended to the forthcoming talks on nuclear arms and space weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union, senior aides to the chancellor.

Kohl, the first western leader to visit Reagan since his reelection, will present strong arguments in favor of early progress toward arms control agreements because West Germany has the "moral authority" to do so after proving its loyalty to the alliance by carrying out the unpopular deployment of Pershing II missiles, the officials said.

The trip also bears important political significance for the Christian Democratic leader, whose two years as chancellor have been scarred by minor scandals and party feuds within the ruling center-right coalition.

Kohl has rebutted his critics by contending that his government has restored warm and trustful ties between Bonn and Washington, primarily through his good working friendship with Reagan.

During the one-day visit, Kohl and Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher expect to be briefed on U.S. strategy for exploratory arms control discussions between Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko in Geneva Jan. 7.

If that session should lead to a resumption of arms negotiations, Bonn wants regular alliance consultations to take place through an institutionalized committee meeting so that European countries can be assured that their interests are being given full consideration in all U.S.-Soviet negotiations.

West German officials cited NATO's Special Consultative Group, which met as often as twice a month during the Geneva negotiations on medium-range missiles, as an exemplary type of forum to coordinate allied views for the broader arms talks likely to take place next year spanning nuclear arms and space-based weaponry.

Kohl, who has consulted with French President Francois Mitterrand and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher prior to his trip, also intends to use his rapport with Reagan to emphasize European convictions that a more cooperative relationship must be established between Moscow and Washington during the president's second term.

"As long as both superpowers do not improve their relations, Europeans in East and West have only a very small margin to cooperate," one of Kohl's top advisers explained. "We have already experienced just how small our room for maneuver really is."

He was referring to the thwarting of Bonn's recent initiatives to bolster dialogue between Eastern and Western Europe. Many analysts laid that setback to a Soviet-inspired campaign accusing the Kohl government of nurturing "revanchist" designs to regain prewar German territories in Eastern Europe.

Two months ago, East German head of state Erich Honecker bowed to Soviet pressure and called off a trip to West Germany that would have capped an extraordinary rapprochement between the two German states during the past year.

Only last week, Genscher postponed a trip to Poland at the last minute when communist authorities insisted that he could not visit a German war memorial, lay a wreath at the grave of the slain pro-Solidarity priest Jerzy Popieluszko or bring along a correspondent from the conservative newspaper Die Welt.

West German officials believe that the Soviet propaganda blasts and troubles with East European neighbors may continue until the 40th anniversary of the defeat of Nazi armies in World War II next May. But they are convinced that Moscow's wrath will fade quickly once superpower relations are repaired.

"We want to see Ronald Reagan move ahead with the ideas in his United Nations speech, meaning an improvement in all levels of the relationship with Moscow as well as a summit with [Soviet leader Konstantin] Chernenko," the senior adviser said.

On transatlantic issues, Kohl will voice Bonn's anxiety about the dangers of a potential trade war following the sudden U.S. ban on imports of steel pipes and tubes from the 10 members of the European Community. The community's executive Commission in Brussels is contemplating retaliatory action against U.S. products.