U.S. District Judge Thomas F. Hogan ordered yesterday that a suspected Colombian cocaine smuggler be held for trial without bond under a law passed by Congress last year to crack down on the international drug trade.

"The court feels any bond would not be sufficient, given the background and history of this case," Hogan said.

The defendant, Marcos Cadavid, 43, was extradited from Colombia last weekend under a 2-year-old treaty with the United States that also is designed to curtail drug smuggling.

Assistant U.S. Attorney Roger M. Adelman alleged in court that Cadavid, who is charged with conspiracy to distribute cocaine, was involved in the wholesaling of the drug in the Miami area. The narcotic was later distributed elsewhere, including Washington, according to prosecutors.

Adelman said that a bail agency that interviewed Cadavid after his arraignment here had recommended that he be denied bond.

Under the Bail Reform Act of 1984, a federal judge can deny bond to certain drug defendants if he finds that "no condition or combination of conditions will reasonably assure" that the suspect will appear for future court dates.

The measure won Reagan administration support after several major suspected drug importers fled the United States, forefeiting bonds of more than $1 million.

Four other defendants who were indicted with Cadavid in December 1983 on various drug and money laundering charges, including Washington lobbyist Fred B. Black Jr. and former Riggs Bank Vice President William G. Hessler, are scheduled to begin trial today.