Jewish organizations are showing an ominous tendency toward "self-ghettoization" around narrow single issues, such as Israel's security, when they should be broadening their agenda to that of the Jewish population they claim to represent, according to a study sponsored by the American Jewish Congress.

This trend is the greatest threat to Jewish political effectiveness, while the Jewish community's "high level of integration" into all aspects of American business and community life, and its penchant for coalition-building, are its greatest political strengths, the study found.

The study on "The Political Future of American Jews" was released here yesterday at the conclusion of a three-day conference of the AJC, its first on domestic policy. Community relations specialist Earl Raab and political sociologist Seymour Martin Lipset wrote the report. While Jewish voters show no signs of deserting the ideals they have long shared with the Democratic Party, the study said, the question is "whether the Democratic Party network is leaving the Jews and their agenda."

There is a "foreboding" among Jews that the influence of black leader Jesse L. Jackson might lead to antagonism toward Israel and a revival of anti-Semitism, especially at local party levels, it said.

But AJC officials suggested that Jews -- who voted 2-to-1 Democratic in 1984 -- were at least temporarily more concerned about the Reagan administration's embrace of the religious right and the perceived threat to the constitutional wall separating church and state than they were about Jackson.

The study found that American support of Israel is at its most secure level and anti-Semitism at its lowest point in this century.

It also reported that Jews contribute to political parties disproportionately to their numbers in the U.S. population: they give more than half the money collected by the Democratic Party and up to a quarter of Republican funds.