Senate Republican leaders say they plan to meet soon with President Reagan in an attempt to narrow what Majority Leader Robert J. Dole (R-Kan.) called "areas of wide disagreement" about deficit reductions proposed last week by the Senate Budget Committee.

Acknowledging serious difficulties in passing the plan without support by Reagan or Democrats, Dole said yesterday that he is trying to arrange a meeting by Friday with the president as the "beginning" of a new phase of the quest for a budget package that can win Senate approval.

The Budget Committee plan would cut deficits by more than half to slightly more than $100 billion within three years, largely by cutting Reagan's military buildup, freezing Social Security and deeply reducing many other domestic programs.

Reagan and the Democrats have distanced themselves from the plan, and it is widely believed that it lacks the votes for Senate approval.

"Without the president's support, we've got a problem. And without bipartisan support, we've got a problem," Dole said.

He noted that Reagan views the defense-spending cuts as too big and the domestic cuts as too small and has taken no position on the Social Security freeze -- "three areas of major disagreement," according to Dole. He said he hopes that "we can find some common ground."

Aides said Dole is also talking privately with Democrats, who have objected to the Social Security freeze and to some of the most drastic cuts in other domestic programs. Dole said earlier, however, that he would attempt to gain agreement among Republicans, presumably including Reagan, before trying to negotiate seriously with Democrats.

Dole declined to say when he expects a Senate vote on the plan, noting that it was interpreted as a setback when he failed to meet his Feb. 1 target for assembling a Republican package. Asked if a vote could be expected before or after the scheduled April 4-15 recess, Dole would only say it is anticipated "soon."