The Soviet media today criticized the U.S. Senate's approval of funding for more MX missiles but reserved their sharpest words for President Reagan and his chief aides.

A commentary by the official news agency Tass said the senators bowed to "unprecedented pressure" by the president and by companies involved in the production of the controversial missiles.

But Tass assailed Reagan's argument, advanced prior to the vote yesterday, that the MX program would strengthen the likelihood of success at the Soviet-American arms talks in Geneva.

"The result of the Senate voting," it said, "at a time when Soviet-American talks on nuclear and space armaments are held in Geneva, fully expose Washington's hypocritical declarations that the United States is 'fully determined' to achieve reduction and even elimination of offensive strategic armaments."

Tass described Reagan's speech to a group of senators yesterday as "filled with demagoguery and militarist ambitions."

Another Tass commentary attacked Vice President Bush for arguing that the failure to approve the second batch of MX missiles would "waste" billions of dollars already invested in the MX program.

The commentary described Bush's argument as "disquieting" and contended that it revealed U.S. intentions to proceed with deployment of new weapons in space under Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative.

"The vice president's remarks make it clear that after spending $26 billion on the so-called research [into space weapons] the administration will declare, like on the MX program -- if the space-based antimissile defense system is not deployed, this will result in the 'waste' of the money already invested."

A third commentary said yesterday's vote confirmed Soviet suspicions that the United States was trying to increase its first-strike capability in an effort to gain strategic superiority.

The MX missile is to be "the sword" behind the "shield" of a space-based antimissile system, it said.