The House Foreign Affairs Committee last night voted, 24 to 9, to authorize $5 million in military aid to noncommunist Cambodian forces resisting the Vietnamese occupation there.

In approving a $14.5 billion foreign aid bill, the panel also agreed to $1.5 billion in economic support for Israel over a two-year period, despite administration objections that the aid should await Israeli economic reforms.

The amount for Israel is in addition to $1.2 billion in economic aid and $1.8 billion in military aid approved by the committee for 1986 and 1987.

On Cambodian aid, the Democratic-controlled committee also ignored administration objections and impassioned criticism by liberal Democrats.

It voted down by the same margin an effort by Rep. Jim Leach (R-Iowa) to convert the aid to humanitarian assistance.

Leach called the military-aid proposal "intervention without executive sanction" that would renew U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia without sufficient hearings or public discussion.

But sponsoring Rep. Stephen J. Solarz (D-N.Y.), chairman of the Asian and Pacific affairs subcommittee, successfully argued that his proposal would "be faithful to our values."

Solarz said the noncommunist rebels have 15,000 men under arms and can arm another 16,000 if given money to do so. The rebel coalition includes a tiny group headed by Prince Norodom Sihanouk and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF) of former prime minister Son Sann.

U.S. aid would cover 20 to 30 percent of the rebels' needs for about a year, Solarz said, and would encourage further contributions from the five-nation Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) pact.

The Reagan administration has opposed the aid measure on grounds that adequate weapons are available to the rebels and that arms might be diverted to the communist Khmer Rouge forces of former Cambodian dictator Pol Pot.

The Khmer Rouge and KPNLF are the principal forces fighting Vietnam's six-year occupation of Cambodia.

Rep. Samuel Gejdenson (D-Conn.), who led supporters of Leach's effort to weaken the aid proposal, said Solarz's plan would "put the American flag in the midst of a conflict in a way that can only increase the reaction by other participants . . . in a way that is far more significant than a $5 million commitment."

Gejdenson called the vote "a dangerous step without due thought and process by this committee."

Conservative Rep. Danny L. Burton (R-Ind.) said he supports the Solarz proposal "as a token gesture" and added, "But this $5 million is not going to be the end if we start."

Backing Solarz, Rep. Robert G. Torricelli (D-N.J.) said that, if the United States does not help the rebels, "Pol Pot will be the only one there when Vietnam eventually withdraws." Under Pol Pot's rule in the 1970s, more than 1 million Cambodians were killed.

On the Israeli aid vote, Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind.), chairman of the subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East, reversed his earlier opposition and sponsored the amendment.

"This must be viewed as supplementary to Israel's own economic reform. It cannot be a substitute for that reform," Hamilton said.

Opposing the measure, William Schneider Jr., undersecretary of state for security affairs, pleaded for a delay of "only a few weeks" in which the Israeli government could be expected to enact measures to combat soaring inflation.

Earlier yesterday, the panel voted, 14 to 7, to cut off $10 million in economic aid to Bolivia until it bans most production of coca leaf, from which cocaine is made, and clears 4,000 acres of coca farms.

Arguing for a tougher version that would have blocked about $22 million of Bolivia's $57 million in aid, Rep. Edward F. Feighan (D-Ohio) noted that Bolivia had agreed to act against the cocaine trade in 1983 but had not cut "even one leaf of one coca bush." The House panel, following the lead of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, also voted to end aid to Pakistan unless President Reagan certifies that Pakistan has no nuclear device capable of detonation and that the aid would reduce the risk of its obtaining one.

The measure also would suspend aid to any nation trying to acquire bomb parts illegally from the United States. That action was also aimed at Pakistan, one of whose agents was caught trying to export illegal detonating switches last year.

Earlier, the committee approved an amendment by Rep. Michael D. Barnes (D-Md.) that would place conditions on transfer of airborne warning and control system reconnaissance planes to Saudi Arabia "in order to protect the security of U.S. equipment and technology," as Barnes said. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee approved the measure unanimously last week.

Maintaining its policy of evenhanded treatment for Greece and Turkey, the committee voted, 19 to 7, to extend to Greece a concessional interest rate for loans equivalent to that given Turkey, but committee members repeatedly condemned recent anti-American rhetoric by Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou.