The broad budget agreement worked out by the White House and Senate Republicans last week contains more than a hundred specific proposals for cutting the deficit, from limiting farm price-support payments and college student aid to levying new fees for use of national parks.

It would kill or phase out 17 domestic programs and revamp, freeze or curtail dozens of others, for an estimated deficit reduction of $52.2 billion next year.

The agreement proposes cutting defense less and many popular domestic programs more than the Republican-led Senate Budget Committee agreed to last month. Many of the cuts finally adopted were proposed by President Reagan in his 1986 budget request.

Senate officials said yesterday that an informal count showed only 30 to 32 of the 53 Senate Republicans willing to support the plan, which is scheduled to be considered on the Senate floor during the week of April 22.

Among programs and agencies to be eliminated under the agreement are the federal subsidy to Amtrak, mass transit operating subsidies, rural loan programs, the Small Business Administration, federal crop insurance, most postal subsidies and direct loans by the Export-Import Bank.

Other items proposed for terminiation are Urban Development Action Grants, Jobs Corps, the Appalachian Regional Commission and Economic Development Administration, revenue sharing with local governments, federal "impact" aid for most local school districts, and school lunch subsidies for familes with incomes over about $19,600 a year.

The Senate Budget Committee had proposed freezing or scaling back many of these politically popular middle-class programs, but not eliminating them.

Another 30 or so programs, including college student aid, Medicare and Medicaid, would be cut or restricted under last week's agreement.

Medicare recipients would have to pay higher premiums and deductibles. Medicare reimbursements to doctors and hospitals would be frozen. Medicaid reimbursements to the states would be capped and not allowed to increase more than the medical-services inflation rate. Medicaid provides health services for the the poor; Medicare is the medical insurance program for the elderly and disabled.

The plan also would limit new National Institutes of Health research grants to 5,500 a year.

In farm programs, last week's agreement would limit income support payments to individual grain, rice and cotton farmers to $25,000 a year, half the current amount.

Acreage diversion programs that pay farmers to reduce their planting would be eliminated. The Farmers Home Administration would continue to service existing direct loans, but would make no more new ones. New borrowers would be assisted through federal guarantees. In addition, electric rates would increase for some users of rural electric cooperatives.

There also would be a three-year moratorium on funding for development and filling of the strategic petroleum reserve. Funding for some energy-conservation programs would be reduced next year and then allowed to grow with inflation after that.

The plan would reduce funding for federal highways and for the air traffic control computer-replacement program.

It also would cut the community development block grant program by 10 percent and would impose a two-year moratorium on rental rehabilitation grants. In addition, federal subsidies would be eliminated for flood insurance to homeowners in flood-prone areas.

Operating subsidies for the nation's public housing projects would be reduced. Job training programs for dislocated workers would be cut, as would funding for cultural activities, except for libraries.

Pay for federal civilian employes would be frozen for one year, instead of cut by 5 percent as proposed by President Reagan. Federal employe contributions to retirement programs would rise from 7 to 9 percent beginning in 1987. At the same time, there would be a gradual reduction in benefits for early retirement.

Annual cost-of-living increases for Social Security and other benefit and pension programs would be held 2 percentage points less than inflation, but with a guaranteed minimum of 2 percent a year.

The agreement contains several new or increased user fees. Twenty-five percent of the cost of managing national parks and other federal recreation lands and facilities would be paid through fees. Currently, 7 percent of the cost is picked up that way.

Veterans would have to pay higher loan origination fees under the Veteran's Administration loan program. Recreational boaters and commerical mariners would have to pay for some Coast Guard services that now are free. And the U.S. Customs Service would begin charging fees to cover the cost of a some of their commercial and processing services. Congress has rejected such user fees in the past.