In an article April 11 about the Synergetic Civilization, a group of ecologists and avant-garde actors, Andre Rotkiewicz was incorrectly identified as a former group member. He was an employe at the group's Caravan of Dreams theater but not a group member.
Enver Hoxha, 76, the leader of Albania for more than 40 years, was an unreconstructed Stalinist who accused both Moscow and Peking of betraying Marxism-Leninism.
Hoxha imposed upon the 2.8 million inhabitants of his Balkan homeland a harsh regime that banned virtually all contact with the outside world. His orthodoxy was such that his countrymen were denied not only religion, which was banned in 1967, but also such innocuous western fads as blue jeans and long hair. Private ownership of cars was prohibited and travel abroad was limited to official delegations.
Yet Hoxha played a notable role on the international stage because of his readiness to denounce the major communist centers with the same fervor as he did the United States and its western allies.
In 1948, he broke with Tito when the Yugoslav leader proclaimed his independence from Moscow. In 1961, when the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, escalated his de-Stalinization campaign, Albania cut diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.
In the early days of the Sino-Soviet dispute, both sides resorted to euphemisms. Moscow heaped vituperation on Albania, meaning China. Peking responded by attacking Yugoslavia, meaning the Soviet Union. In 1968, after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, Albania protested by withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact.
From 1961 until 1978, Hoxha's patron was Communist China, which provided approximately $5 billion in military and economic assistance during that period.
Following the death of Mao Tse-tung, China began expanding its ties with the West. Hoxha, ever distrustful of such policies, accused China of practicing "imperialism" and ordered the expulsion of several hundred Chinese technicians. They left behind many unfinished development projects, including a steel mill.
Each round of denunciation directed abroad had its domestic counterpart. Many of Hoxha's followers were purged or executed for their alleged support of Tirana's new-found foes. Among them was Mehmet Shehu, Hoxha's closest aide and the premier for 27 years. In 1981 it was reported that he had committed suicide because of "nervous distress." Hoxha later said his former colleague was a traitor who had worked for the U.S., Soviet and Yugoslav secret services.
Despite these shifts, Hoxha's rule embraced Albania's longest period as an independent nation. A factor was geography: Albania's two neighbors are Yugoslavia and Greece, neither of which is in Moscow's camp. Yet Albania has territorial disputes with each of these countries that transcend ideological questions. Furthermore, although Albania remains the poorest country in Europe, observers credit Hoxha's rule with substantial improvements in living standards.
Hoxha was born into the family of a Moslem landowner from the town of Gjirokaster on Oct. 16, 1908. He was educated in Paris and is said to have spoken five languages. He returned home and entered his family's business.
At the time Hoxha was born, Albania had been part of the Ottoman Empire for 450 years. It achieved its independence in 1912 and established itself as a republic in 1920. In 1928, Ahmed Zoglu announced the formation of a monarchy and proclaimed himself King Zog I.
His principal ally was Yugoslavia, but because of disagreements with that country, he sought an alliance with Italy. This move culminated in the Italian invasion of Yugoslavia in 1939 and Zog's flight into exile. Later in World War II, Germany joined in the occupation of the country.
Hoxha, who operated a tobacco shop in Tirana, became part of the resistance to the occupiers. He helped found the Albanian communist party on Nov. 8, 1941, and became a guerrilla leader. In 1944, he was elected first secretary of the party in 1944 and held that post until his death.
At the end of the war, a People's Assembly was elected which the communists dominated. Hoxha was premier and foreign minister until the early 1950s, when he relinquished these posts. He thereafter exercised his power from his position as the head of the party.
Hoxha was an accomplished memoirist and published several volumes in which he gave biting sketches of communist leaders. In "Reflections on China," which appeared in 1979, he said of Khrushchev that "all the waters of the Volga cannot cleanse him of his sins." In the same book he described Stalin as "a great man, a great revolutionary, and so he will remain through the centuries. The mistakes of Stalin, if they exist, are minor ones."
Hoxha was married to Nexhnije Hoxha, a member of the Albanian Workers' Party Central Committee. They reportedly had two sons and one daughter.