The Israeli Cabinet, in an open display of its deep internal divisions, temporarily refused today to authorize Cabinet member Ezer Weizman to travel to Cairo this week for a planned meeting with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The unexpected rejection of what is normally a routine request for a Cabinet minister to travel abroad was by a vote of 10 to 9, with ministers from the right-wing Likud bloc in the national unity government lining up in solid opposition to the Weizman trip. However, the Cabinet decided to reconsider the matter on Monday, setting out guidelines for Weizman's discussions with the Egyptians. It was widely expected that today's decision will then be reversed and that Weizman will be able to leave for Cairo as planned Monday night. Under Israeli law, Cabinet approval is required before a government minister can leave the country. Three of the 25 Cabinet members abstained in today's vote and three others were absent. The vote was a political embarrassment to Prime Minister Shimon Peres of the Labor Party, which shares power with Likud in the government, and that appeared to be one of its principal aims. But it also demonstrated the deep split within the government, particularly on the subject of possible peace negotiations with the Arabs. Weizman, a minister without portfolio who is aligned with the Labor Party, has been deeply involved in charting the Israeli response to Mubarak's peace initiative in February, when the Egyptian president called for negotiations among Israel, the United States and a joint Arab delegation made up of Jordanians and Palestinians. Both Peres and Weizman, who was a key figure at the 1978 Camp David peace conference and has maintained good relations with Egyptian officials, quietly have sought to encourage Mubarak against the opposition of Likud ministers led by Foreign Minister Yitzhak Shamir. Weizman was invited to Cairo by Egyptian Prime Minister Kamal Hassan Ali and is scheduled to meet with Ali and Mubarak. There was speculation in the Israeli press last week that these talks could lead to a meeting of Peres and Mubarak. Such suggestions alarm Likud ministers. They fear that Peres, in order to improve Israel's relations with Egypt, is eager to turn over to an international arbitration panel the issue of Taba, a small strip of land at the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba that is claimed by both Israel and Egypt but has remained under Israeli control since the signing of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty. Likud ministers also fear that encouragement of the Mubarak initiative could lead to negotiations on the future of the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, which Likud is committed to keeping under Israeli control. Labor Party ministers also played down the flap's effect on the government's ability to hold itself together despite its divisions over Middle East peace negotiations. "The problem will probably be solved tomorrow, and from one week to another we will survive," said Energy Minister Moshe Shahal. Meanwhile, Assistant Secretary of State Richard W. Murphy, President Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East, arrived in Amman, Jordan, yesterday on a trip that may include Israel, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Syria. He met with King Hussein today, The Associated Press reported, and Radio Jordan said the talks centered on the Jordanian-Palestinian agreement for a joint peace effort with Israel.