Terence C. Golden started his job as head of the General Services Administration yesterday by bringing aboard five senior officials, including a deputy administrator, and notifying several holdover political appointees that their services would no longer be needed.

Golden's new appointees are drawn heavily from the Treasury Department, where he served as assistant secretary for administration.

Charles S. Davis III, GSA's associate administrator for operations, said he was told he could stay from "one week to three months," while he helps Golden screen candidates for his job. Davis, responsible for monitoring the agency's 11 regional offices, is one of the highest political appointees at GSA.

Several sources said that Golden also asked Roger C. Dierman, deputy associate administrator for administration, to make a commitment to stay for three years or to leave. Dierman, the sources said, had told Golden he would leave. Dierman could not be reached for comment.

Meanwhile, Golden appointed Paul K. Trause, the principal deputy undersecretary of Interior, as deputy administrator. Trause and the other top officials appointed yesterday are career government employes.

At a Monday morning staff meeting, Golden told aides that the White House was expected soon to name William R. Barton as the agency's inspector general. Barton now is deputy director of the U.S. Secret Service, an arm of the Treasury Department.

Other new appointees:

Susan Brita, who served as Golden's chief of staff at Treasury, will fill the same job at GSA.

Paul T. Weiss, director of personnel at Treasury, becomes a special assistant to Golden. William A. Clinkscales, associate administrator for policy and management systems, and Patricia Q. Schoeni, associate administrator for administration, will report to Weiss.

Joseph M. Slye, deputy director of public affairs at the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, will become Golden's chief spokesman. Slye spent 13 years in the Commerce Department's public affairs office before switching to the Transportation Department in 1984.

Slye, insiders say, is being groomed to replace Patrick H. McKelvey as director of public affairs. McKelvey lost his patron at the agency when Jack L. Courtemanche failed to be confirmed as GSA administrator last year.

Jane Kenny, a special assistant to Vice President Bush, will become director of the Office of the Executive Secretariat, which monitors the flow of paper into the administrator's office. She replaces Joan P. Moreci, another Courtemanche appointee, who will be given a new job within the GSA.

Golden's staff meeting yesterday may have signaled a changing of the guard. Clinkscales and Schoeni, who previously had been included at the administrator's meeting, were excluded, as was Earl Jones, acting commissioner of the Federal Property Resources Service.

Slye said that the agency will probably announce this week that Gary Korwalzcyk, Treasury's budget director, will join GSA as a special assistant who will monitor budget issues.

Under federal personnel regulations, members of the Senior Executive Service cannot be transferred in the 120 days after a new person assumes charge of an agency. Schedule C appointees, however, serve at the pleasure of the administrator.