A House appropriations subcommittee voted yesterday to bar any nation from receiving U.S. foreign aid in fiscal 1986 until its government takes "adequate, appropriate steps to provide airport security against potential terrorist activities."

In approving a $14.3 billion foreign aid measure on a voice vote, the subcommittee on foreign operations also agreed to provide $1 million to El Salvador to investigate the June 19 murders of 13 people, including four Marines and two other U.S. citizens.

The measure, a $1.2 billion cut in President Reagan's foreign aid request, also provides $5 million in economic or military aid to noncommunist rebel groups fighting the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia.

Chairman David R. Obey (D-Wis.) said there was bipartisan support in the closed subcommittee session for the airport security language, "to give the president an additional hammer to use over any country that gets aid . . . to make sure they are doing the minimum necessary to protect the civilized world from uncivilized actions."

Under the measure, the U.S. president would have to certify that "adequate" measures have been taken before any fiscal 1986 funds could be disbursed. Reagan has issued an advisory warning to travelers that the Athens airport is unsafe and has been pressuring Lebanon to revamp security in Beirut.

The provision would hold up about $415 million in aid to Greece, but specifies that any aid request for Lebanon must be submitted to Congress later.

The subcommittee also ended all funding for population programs abroad in an effort, Obey said, to force agreement.

The proposed measure would retain unrestricted aid to Jordan and makes Mozambique funding conditional on progress in human rights. It withholds 50 percent of aid to Peru, Bolivia and Jamaica until they reduce illegal exports of coca leaf.

The subcommittee slashed all administration requests by 17 percent except for Israel, Egypt and Pakistan.

"Cutting the deficit would do a hell of a lot more for the Third World than any aid we can provide," Obey said.