From congressional testimony on July 10 on behalf of the National Association of Manufacturers by William S. McEwen, director of equal opportunity affairs for Monsanto Company:

As the debate on affirmative action has emerged in recent years, much attention has focused on goals and timetables versus quotas. Industry does not believe that numerical goals for minority inclusion in the workforce, by themselves, constitute quotas. Business, particularly big business, sets goals and timetables for every aspect of its operations -- profits, capital investment, productivity increases and promotional potential for individuals. Setting goals and timetables for minority and female participation is a way of meas and focusing on potential discrimination.

Industry recognizes, however, that goals and timetables can become masks for rigid quotas. We oppose any regulations that turn positive programs for measuring progress into unwielding rules on the number of minorities and women who must encompass the workplace. Yet, voluntary goals set by corporations for workforce participation should not be viewed as eroding equal opportunity objectives. These goals are merely a recognition that ingrained prejudices remain in our society. Assuring equal opportunity, at least for the next few years to come, means we must be ever vigilant in facing these prejudices and overcoming them . . . .