Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping gave a speech five years ago in which he identified major problems in the country's Communist Party and government leadership system that were impeding the country's modernization program.
Following are excerpts from the Aug. 18, 1980, speech on the reform of the system of party and state leadership that was delivered to an enlarged meeting of the party's Politburo:
"Bureaucracy remains a major and widespread problem in the political life of our party and state. Its harmful manifestations include the following: standing high above the masses; abusing power; divorcing oneself from reality and the masses; spending a lot of time and effort to put up an impressive front; indulging in empty talk; sticking to a rigid way of thinking; being hidebound by convention; overstaffing administrative organs; being dilatory, inefficient and irresponsible; failing to keep one's word; circulating documents endlessly without solving problems; shifting responsibility to others, and even assuming the airs of a mandarin, reprimanding other people at every turn, vindictively attacking others, suppressing democracy, deceiving superiors and subordinates, being arbitrary and despotic, practicing favoritism, offering bribes, participating in corrupt practices in violation of the law, and so on. Such things have reached intolerable dimensions both in our domestic affairs and in our contacts with other countries."