Separate visits to the United States this month by Polish communist party leader Wojciech Jaruzelski and Roman Catholic Primate Josef Glemp have taken on a high profile in Poland's internal politics but appear unlikely to influence tense U.S.-Polish relations, according to officials and diplomats here.

Glemp, who departed today, and Jaruzelski, whose trip begins next week, nominally are Poland's two most important public leaders, and both have placed special emphasis on the trips at a time of complex political maneuvering before upcoming parliamentary elections. Both will be visiting the United States for the first time since assuming their present positions, and it will be Jaruzelski's first appearance in any western country during his four years in power.

But while seeking gains in U.S. and internal public opinion, neither leader will meet with officials of the Reagan administration or other U.S. politicians.

Instead, the trips have served to highlight the freeze in official relations between Washington and Warsaw. State Department and Polish government spokesmen announced this month that they had no intention of arranging an official U.S. contact for Jaruzelski, who will arrive in New York Tuesday for a four-day visit to the United Nations.

Glemp, who is beginning a seven-day tour of Philadelphia, Washington and Detroit, did not request a State Department or White House meeting, and criticized continuing U.S. sanctions against Poland in a meeting with American reporters here last week.

"Relations are particularly bad," said Polish government spokesman Jerzy Urban in a recent press conference. U.S. officials have agreed, citing a increase in political arrests in Poland this year as justification for continuing a policy of not meeting with Polish officials at the United Nations.

The standoff between Jaruzelski and Reagan may have influenced Glemp's decision not to seek an official meeting in Washington, western sources here said. "There was some concern about avoiding comparisons of treatment," said one observer, noting that church-state relations already were at a delicate point with Glemp's withholding of endorsement for the upcoming elections.

Glemp, who described his trip as "a pastoral visit," will meet with U.S. Catholic authorities and the large community of Americans of Polish ancestry. In Washington, he is to meet Friday with Bishop James W. Malone, president of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops.

Jaruzelski's most important American contact may result from meetings now being considered with American bankers and leaders of the private Rockefeller Foundation. Informed sources said that there have been efforts to arrange talks between Jaruzelski and William Rhodes of Citibank as well as David Rockefeller, representing the foundation.

Urban said today that "certain details" of Jaruzelski's program are still being arranged. Facing payments problems on its large foreign debt, Jaruzelski's government is currently seeking fresh loans.

It has also been discussing a 2-year-old Rockefeller Foundation proposal for the creation of a private foundation that would arrange large western investments in Polish agricultural and agribusiness projects.

Urban confirmed that representatives of the Rockefeller interests met with officials here last week and yesterday.

While Polish officials have considered contacts between Jaruzelski and the U.S. media, a major effort has been mounted at home to use the general's visit and address to the General Assembly as a way to rally public support before the elections. "The trip is clearly an election trip," one western diplomat commented.

Government spokesmen, seeking to overcome a call by the banned Solidarity trade union for a boycott of the Oct. 13 voting, have focused on the trip as source of national prestige.