President Reagan, saying that it will take more than nuclear-weapons reductions to ensure "true peace" with the Soviet Union, said yesterday he will bring up human rights, armed intervention and subversion when he meets with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.

In his weekly radio address, the president asserted anew his conviction that the United States should pursue testing as well as research on his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars" plan.

Reagan will meet in Geneva on Nov. 19-20 with Gorbachev, the general secretary of the Soviet Union's Communist Party.

Reagan said the outcome will depend on Gorbachev's "willingness to address the real sources of tension in the world and, in particular, their conduct in the world, their treatment of their own citizens and longstanding arms buildup."

The president said, "I intend to discuss with him openly and frankly the obstacles to peace and to suggest how together we can remove some of them.

". . . We have the opportunity, in fact we have the mandate, to reduce the danger of nuclear war by drastic reduction of nuclear arsenals."

In the Democrats' weekly radio message, Rep. David R. Obey (D-Wis.) criticized Reagan and his attempts to raise the debt ceiling, insisting that "we should take the medicine now" and cut the $200 billion deficit.

Obey, chairman of the Joint Economic Committee, said delays in cutting the deficit threaten the nation's goals of having a healthy and growing economy that would increase incomes and assure prosperity.

He criticized the Gramm-Rudman amendment to slash the huge budget deficit during each of the next five years to achieve a balanced budget by 1991.