The Dutch parliament, despite recent Soviet overtures on freezing or limiting medium-range missiles in Europe, approved a draft agreement with the United States today on the deployment of cruise missiles in the Netherlands.

The vote, coming after three days of debate, showed a consensus behind the policy of Prime Minister Ruud Lubbers' center-right government and cleared the way for a decision by the Dutch Cabinet on the fate of the cruise missiles next week.

Government sources said they were pleased that a clear-cut majority of 91 out of 150 legislators voted for the agreement, indicating that they had not been swayed by eleventh-hour Soviet efforts to undermine NATO policy.

Lubbers' government has declared it would accept 48 missiles as part of NATO's nuclear modernization plans if by Nov. 1 the Soviet Union had deployed more SS20s than it had in place as of June 1984.

The latest figures released by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization show that Moscow has increased its arsenal of the triple-warhead SS20s to 441, or 63 more than were operational in June 1984. In preparation for its Nov. 1 decision, the Dutch Cabinet is expected to ask NATO for a final SS20 count on Friday.

Foreign Minister Hans van den Broek said that once the decision is made, the government hopes for prompt passage of enabling legislation to prepare the missile site at Woensdrecht so that the missiles can be deployed fully in 1988.

Joop den Uyl, head of the opposition Labor Party, called the accelerated timetable "unprecedented and inconceivable," but it is doubtful that Labor can muster enough dissenting votes to deter construction at the site.

The draft accord, which covers arrangements for basing and control of the nuclear missiles, is to run for five years. It specifies that consultations among the allies would precede the use of any missiles stationed here.

In recent weeks, Lubbers has received two letters from Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who has contended that no more than 243 SS20s are now targeted at Western Europe -- others presumably aimed eastward toward China. In addition, the Soviets reportedly have offered to freeze the number of SS20s if the western allies will halt further deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe.

The Dutch ruling coalition has stuck by its June 1984 decision to count all SS20s, since they are mobile missiles and can be transported between the eastern and western parts of the Soviet Union.

The latest Soviet offer to freeze the number of medium-range missiles in Europe was viewed here as a positive sign nonetheless, because it recognized the legitimacy of the West's deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles as a counterforce to the SS20s.

But Dutch government officials stressed that the Soviet offer still did not address the central issue of bringing down the overall number to 378 if the Netherlands were to forgo its quota of cruise missiles.

Soviet political and military dignitaries have appeared frequently on Dutch television in recent weeks offering a variety of arguments against cruise deployment, including the claim that the SS20 is too big and unwieldy to be described as mobile.

Such Soviet appeals have failed to provoke further opposition to the missiles. Antinuclear activists intend to present Lubbers with a petition Saturday allegedly signed by 3 million people opposed to deployment. But only a few months ago, the organizers insisted that 5 million Dutch citizens were prepared to endorse the petition.

Public opinion surveys also indicate that for the first time, more than 50 percent of the population is willing to accept deployment of the new missiles.