*NORTH PACIFIC AIR SAFETY: Yesterday's communique announced accord among the U.S., Japanese and Soviet governments on a program to enhance air safety in the North Pacific. The agreement, designed to prevent incidents like the Sept. 1, 1983, downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, will take six to eight months to implement. Flight 007, unaccountably, was 310 miles off course when it was shot down in Soviet airspace.

As part of the accord, the Soviets have agreed for the first time to permit aircraft in emergency situations to land in Soviet territory. The measure also calls for the installation of a voice communications link, similar to a hot line, for civil air traffic controllers in Anchorage, Tokyo and Khabarovsk, in the Soviet Far East, to communicate about lost or unidentified aircraft.

*CONSULATES: Agreement has been reached on the simultaneous opening of a U.S. consulate in Kiev and a Soviet consulate in New York. The two governments first agreed to open consulates-general in those cities in 1974. In retaliation for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, however, Washington withdrew seven U.S. consular officials from Kiev and ordered the expulsion of 17 diplomats from a projected Soviet consulate in New York.

The consular accord also authorizes the two governments to conclude negotiations on resuming commercial air traffic between the United States and the Soviet Union. Pan American World Airways flew between New York and Moscow for 10 years, but dropped the service in October 1978 for economic reasons, including a Soviet requirement that its citizens fly the national carrier, Aeroflot, and a prohibition on Pan Am from selling tickets within the Soviet Union. President Reagan suspended all U.S.-bound Soviet flights on Dec. 29, 1981, as part of U.S. retaliation for imposition of martial law in Poland.

*CULTURAL ACCORDS: Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze signed accords to foster "greater understanding among our peoples" by creating joint scholarship programs for students in natural and social sciences, humanities and technology, and by promoting Russian-language studies in the United States and English-language studies in the Soviet Union.

A parallel agreement provides for "general exchanges" involving arts groups, professors, journalists and government officials to promote understanding of "aspects of each country's life and society." President Reagan alluded to the possibility of increased cultural exchanges in his televised address Nov. 14.

A broad U.S.-Soviet cultural exchange agreement expired Dec. 31, 1979. American officials halted negotiations on an extension of that pact to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that began that month.