Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger has recommended additional spending on selected defense systems among other U.S. "proportionate responses" to be taken because of Soviet violations of arms treaties, according to government sources.

The Pentagon's long-awaited recommendations, which went to the White House late last week, "are fiscally manageable," one source said.

In a November report to President Reagan on Soviet violations, Weinberger said "our priority response" to the Soviet actions should be "to implement fully" some military programs that budget restraints had reduced or canceled.

Pentagon officials, still smarting from the presummit leak to the news media of that report and Weinberger's cover letter to Reagan urging him not to compromise on some arms issues, refused yesterday to describe the proposals.

Weinberger's recommendations reached the White House on the eve of public release of the president's third annual report to Congress on Soviet arms treaty violations.

In that document, the president said administration studies have found a continuing "pattern of Soviet noncompliance" that could, "if left unaddressed . . . become precedents for future, more threatening violations." He also wrote that the violations "darken the atmosphere in which current negotiations are being conducted in Geneva and elsewhere."

Copies of the unclassified portions of the report were made available yesterday to The Washington Post and other news organizations by administration officials.

The Reagan administration's controversial, two-year campaign to publicize what it considers Soviet treaty violations reversed the practice of earlier Republican and Democratic presidents who kept such problems in closed, diplomatic circles and attempted to resolve them with Moscow without publicity.

Now, according to experts both inside and outside the government, the Reagan policy of publicity has reached a critical point. Either Washington must get some tangible change in what it has characterized as unacceptable Soviet behavior toward treaty commitments or it must take responsive military or political actions.

The president in his new report said "the Soviet Union has thus far not provided explanations sufficient to alleviate our concerns on these issues nor has the Soviet taken actions need to correct existing violations. Instead, they have continued to assert that they are in complete compliance with their arms-control obligations and commitments."

One Pentagon official said last week that the earlier approach of quiet but ineffective action "invited" the Soviets to continue what he considered to be treaty violations. He cited increased Soviet efforts to conceal nuclear missile tests.