David A. Stockman, former director of the Office of Management and Budget, has once again caught the eye of his former boss, President Reagan.

According to a White House official, Reagan "hit the roof" this week when he saw a newspaper account of an interview with Stockman to be published in Penthouse magazine. In the interview, Stockman says Republicans as well as Democrats are to blame for the mounting federal deficit. "After four years, I am convinced that a large share of the problem is us," Stockman says. "By that, I mean Republicans."

Stockman, who is now a managing director of Salomon Brothers Inc., reportedly makes a similar argument in his forthcoming book about his years in Washington: "The Triumph of Politics," subtitled "Why the Reagan Revolution Failed," or close to that.

That book got Stockman a $2 million-plus advance from Harper and Row. Salomon reportedly is paying him well into the six figures. And according to records at the Federal Election Commission, Stockman recently picked up what -- for him -- amounts to small change from an unexpected source.

A former member of the House from Michigan, Stockman recently terminated his Free Enterprise Fund, a political action committee he established when he left Congress to join OMB in 1981, using money left over from his past House campaigns. In closing the books on the PAC at the end of last month, Stockman exercised some individual initiative, if not free enterprise: he gave himself the leftover cash, $9,735.67. Stockman could have given the money to Republican candidates for the House and Senate.

She Wins a Prize, But Not the Big Job . . . The acting commissioner of Social Security for the last 2 1/2 years, Martha A. McSteen, has won a 1986 National Public Service Award from the American Society for Public Administration and the National Academy of Public Administration. The award, given annually to five public servants who have exhibited "the highest standards of excellence, dedication and accomplishment," goes to McSteen in recognition of her efforts to modernize the Social Security bureaucracy, but it apparently won't save her job as the boss.

The White House remains inclined to replace McSteen with a Reagan loyalist, probably Dorcas Hardy, assistant secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services for human development programs. Professor Shultz Returns to the Classroom

Secretary of State George P. Shultz, who spent much of his nongovernment life as a college professor, has restarted the semiacademic seminars on key foreign policy issues bringing leading outside experts together with top government officials.

A Shultz-sponsored seminar on Afghanistan last Saturday morning at the State Department was the first in a planned series on regional issues in which the United States and Soviet Union have a major interest. Among other topics that may be addressed in coming months are Angola, the Horn of Africa and Cambodia. There may also be a seminar on how the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings budget law may affect foreign affairs.

Among the government officials who attended Professor Shultz's Afghan seminar were Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger, CIA Director William J. Casey and various deputies and assistants from State, Defense and the CIA. The outside experts who participated, according to the State Department, were author and intelligence analyst Henry Bradsher, former National Security Council advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, anthropologist Louis Dupree, former ambassador Theodore Eliot, Soviet expert and Foreign Affairs magazine editor William Hyland, professors Zalmay Khalilzad of Columbia University and Bernard Lewis of Princeton University, former defense secretaries Donald Rumsfeld and James Schlesinger and retired diplomat Christopher Van Hollen.