Jubilation over the fall of Jean-Claude Duvalier increasingly is shifting toward uncertainty and restiveness among many Haitian youths upset about the military-dominated provisional government that has replaced him.
The dissatisfaction, voiced in demonstrations and conversations, arises from the presence in the new government of military officers and political figures identified with the former Duvalier government and a feeling that change has not come as dramatically or swiftly as expected.
"Duvalier is gone, but the spirit of Duvalierism remains," says a tract circulating here demanding the departure of a half dozen ministers and military officers. "They are the lackeys of foreigners who have been sucking the country dry."
[In Talloires, France, Duvalier announced Thursday that he had filed a formal request for political refugee status that would allow him and his family to remain in France permanently, Reuter reported. Duvalier, who has been in the Alpine resort town with his entourage since his flight from Haiti last Friday, was officially only on a transit stop in France.]
The sense of disappointment among Haitians appears to be growing, raising a threat of more street violence such as the protests here and in other Haitian cities that drove Duvalier from power last Friday and ended two generations of dictatorship.
"The situation is still very volatile," said a foreign diplomat in the capital, Port-au-Prince.
At least two new ministers have been prevented from entering their offices in the capital by government employes unwilling to accept their record of cooperation with former Duvalier governments. Hundreds of youths demonstrated last night in front of the presidential palace to demand the ouster of former Duvalier associates. An opposition leader, Sylvio Claude, has warned that more protests could follow unless they leave and opposition leaders such as himself are appointed instead.
Those most often mentioned in protests and fliers are Alix Cineas, a civilian member of the National Council of Government long associated with the Duvalier family; Col. Max Valles, a council member who headed the presidential guard; Col. Prosper Avril, adviser to the council, regarded as a Duvalier favorite, and several ministers reputed to have cooperated with Duvalier in business or government.
Lt. Gen. Henri Namphy, the council president, reacted to the pressures with a communique under Valles' name yesterday warning against more disturbances and calling for "work, discipline and reconciliation."
Namphy, who was Duvalier's chief of staff, has pledged to organize a free vote and turn over power to a democratically elected government. His council has yet to set a date for the ballot, however, and its main emphasis so far has been on restoring public order after several weeks of unrest across the country.
"The people have not yet spoken," said Awol Jean, an 18-year-old youth active in anti-Duvalier street protests in this northern city.
The Rev. Yvon Joseph, a Roman Catholic priest at the Notre Dame secondary school here, said most young activists are pressing for swift elections without reflecting on how complicated this would be. Haitians have virtually no experience with democracy.
Joseph said the council should take symbolic steps in the meantime to dramatize changes from the Duvalier dictatorship. As examples, he suggested seeking the return of money transferred abroad by the Duvalier family or putting on trial officials accused of crimes under the dictatorship.
Apparently moving in that direction, the council announced today in Port-au-Prince that the Haitian flag will be changed. The black and red instituted by Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier after he took over in 1957 will return to the blue and red that had been traditional since independence from France in 1804. In addition, officials said they arrested a former mayor of the capital because of his association with the Duvalier political police, the Ton-Tons Macoutes.
But most important, Joseph said, those associated with the old government should be forced from the five-man council and 13-man Cabinet. Youths who demonstrated to get rid of Duvalier are unwilling to accept the leadership of officials linked to him even if these officials are innocent of abuses, he added.
"Having Namphy is the same as having Duvalier still around," complained Almonor Job, 18, a student activist who participated in the last few weeks of street violence.
Bishop Francois Gayot of Cap-Haitien warned Sunday against "communist" influence in political activity beginning to bubble across Haiti. His concern apparently grew out of the Marxist-style language used in some tracts being passed around among youths here.
One flier, for example, urges cooperation from the "national bourgeoisie," in building a new society. It declares that "neighborhood committees" should denounce former Duvalier supporters and calls for "relations with all countries without distinction." In an apparent allusion to the United States, the unsigned tract also urges an end to "foreigners who walk up, down and across Haiti as they please."
The foreign-based Haitian Communist Party is known to have members here. But Haitians and foreign observers say the Catholic Church has been the major influence in promoting the agitation that led to Duvalier's departure. There has been no evidence of extensive organization by radical or leftist groups in Haiti, they say.
The Haitian Bishops Conference, headed by Gayot, urged "reconciliation" after Duvalier's departure. But it has not commented on the ruling council or its Cabinet. A church source said the bishops are considering a new statement.