Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced major changes in the Communist Party hierarchy today, adding to the ruling Politburo a powerful new member charged with industrial development and appointing Anatoliy Dobrynin, the longtime Soviet envoy in Washington, to a senior party post in Moscow.

In addition, two other candidate members were named to the Politburo and 124 new members were elected to the powerful Central Committee, according to a list released today by the Soviet news agency Tass. The committee elects both the Politburo and the Secretariat, which runs the party machinery. These shake-ups represent a 40 percent turnover in the 307-person committee, including many forced into retirement.

The personnel changes, coming at the conclusion of the 27th Soviet Communist Party congress, bring new senior officials to all of the leading party organs and consolidate a party-wide shake-up Gorbachev started a year ago when he assumed power.

According to western diplomats here, the changes also strengthen the Soviet leader's base of support for reforming the Soviet economy. But remaining members of the "old guard" in the Politburo and the Central Committee represent a source of potential resistance, some diplomats said.

Gorbachev hardened his rejection of the stagnation that set in under his predecessors in a speech closing the congress. "We must quickly eliminate from our work inertia, indifference, empty speeches, paper shuffling," he said. "Everything depends on us."

"It is time to act energetically," he added, "to actively participate in the renewal of our socialist home."

The Soviet leader announced the following key shifts:

*Lev Zaikov, 62, formerly Central Committee staffer and Leningrad party boss, became a full member of the party's Politburo. Zaikov, whose election increases the Politburo membership to 12, will be responsible for heavy industry development, a Soviet spokesman said. As one of three men with overlapping duties on the Central Committee Secretariat and the Politburo, Zaikov has assumed one of the most powerful jobs in the Soviet leadership.

*Nikolai Slyunkov, 57, and Yuri Solovyov, 61, were elected candidate (nonvoting) members of the Politburo. They are the current party bosses in Leningrad and Byelorussia respectively.

*Dobrynin, 66, ambassador to the United States since 1962, became one of 11 members of the Secretariat of the party's Central Committee. Although his new responsibilites have not been announced, Eastern European sources said they will include oversight of all functions of the International Department, combining the offices held by Boris Ponomarev and Konstantin Rusakov, both of whom have been retired.

*Alexandra Biryukova, the 57-year-old deputy chairman of the state trade union body, was appointed to the Central Committee Secretariat. The first woman in the senior party ranks in 25 years, she will assume a new job coordinating the improvement of quality and distribution of goods throughout the country, according to authoritative Soviet sources.

*Other new party secretaries are Georgi Razumovsky, 50, head of the party's Administration Department, Alexander Yakovlev, 62, chief of the Propaganda Department, and Vadim Medvedev, 57, an academic specialist in science and technology.

Their duties in the party Secretariat have not been announced publicly yet.

In addition, Ponomarev, 81, and Vasily Kuznetsov, 85, have been dropped as alternate members of the Politburo, according to a list released by Tass.

Ivan Kapitonov, formerly a party secretary, has become a member of the party's auditing commission, according to a Tass report.

Dobrynin's replacement as ambassador in Washington has not been made official yet, government spokesman Leonid Zamyatin announced in a briefing today. But senior diplomatic sources here have mentioned two possibilities for the senior post: Victor Komplektov, a deputy foreign minister, and Yuli Vorontsov, now Soviet ambassador in Paris. Both are specialists on America who have served in the Washington embassy under Dobrynin.

The 5,000 congress delegates yesterday reelected 183 old members to the Central Committee, promoted 31 from candidate membership and named 93 new members, according to a tally of the list issued by Tass.

The Central Committee turnover included replacement of about 30 percent of the membership of the old body lost through death or retirement since the last committee was elected at the 1981 party congress. The total 40.4 percent shift falls short of the 50 percent change in the body's membership that had been predicted by Soviet and western sources before the congress opened Feb. 25.

Four prominent officials who had been retired from other offices under Gorbachev were reelected to the new Central Committee: former premier Nikolai Tikhonov, Nikolai Baibakov, former head of the economic planning agency, Ponomarev and Kuznetsov.

Marshal Nikolai Ogarkov, the former armed forces chief of staff who was demoted shortly before Gorbachev took power, also was reelected to the Central Committee.

The two members of the "old guard" reelected to the Politburo are Ukraine party boss Vladimir Shcherbitsky and Kazakhstan party boss Dinmukhamed Kunaev.

The strong hold of "old guard" Politburo and Central Committee members, coupled with the fact that the newcomers to the committee largely have replaced retired or dead members, indicated that Gorbachev may not have achieved all the personnel turnover he sought, some western diplomats said.

But most of them rated the party congress a success for Gorbachev, who came to power only a year ago.

Delegates approved the Communist Party program revised under his leadership and his 15-year program for social and economic development. Changes in the party rules also were passed.

The Soviet leader devoted his 25-minute speech today to rallying the party and country, but also delivered a sharp attack against Washington, saying "militant aggressive forces" there "would prefer to freeze and perpetuate confrontation now as well."

"And what are we to do?" he asked. "Slam the door? It cannot be ruled out that that is exactly the sort of thing they are pressing us to do."

But, he said, "we do not intend to play up to those who would want to make mankind grow accustomed to the nuclear threat and the arms race."