"The future of arms control is bleak unless the Soviets clean up their violations" of existing agreements, Kenneth L. Adelman, the director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, warned yesterday.

Adelman said there is no intention to halt negotiations because of the violations, but added, "Our patience is limited. You cannot have a viable arms agreement in the future if the Soviet violations continue."

His remarks came at a news conference to publicize an illustrated brochure entitled "Soviet Noncompliance." It details what it describes as nine specific treaty violations and five "probable" violations.

Adelman described it as the most comprehensive public report on Soviet violations, although the material is similar to a report President Reagan sent Congress last December.

The brochure does contain one new detail. It notes that while the violations "constitute a most disturbing pattern of Soviet behavior, the Soviets have adhered to many if not most provisions of the treaties to which they are a party." Past administration reports have been criticized by some arms control specialists for not containing such a statement.

In a foreword, Adelman said the United States has "made clear" to the Soviet Union that it "will consider proportionate and appropriate action in response to Soviet noncompliance." He told reporters the publication was being released "to give a foundation of knowledge on which our response would be seen as a logical outcome."

"Unless you can convince the American people and the American legislators that we have a serious problem here, then the response does not seem warranted," Adelman said.

The ACDA chief also reiterated that President Reagan would announce before May what responses the United States will make if the Soviets' noncompliance continues. In that month, a new Trident missile-carrying submarine will go on sea trials, pushing the United States over one of the limits of the unratified SALT II strategic arms limitation treaty. If the president agrees, as he did last June, to remain within the SALT II limits, he will have to order the dismantling of two older Poseidon nuclear submarines when the Trident goes to sea.

Reagan is being pressed by Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger and others to delay dismantling the submarines and take other steps to show Moscow that violations will not go unpunished. The Pentagon in January sent Reagan a list of suggested steps. The White House is studying "an array of responses," Adelman said.

Administration revival of the violations issue contributes to the propaganda battle between the superpowers. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev has hinted that progress in arms control could influence the timing of his summit visit here.