Secretary of State George P. Shultz will tell the United Nations today that the solution to Africa's massive famine and other economic problems depends on rejecting "now-discredited orthodoxies about state-directed development" and "giving greater scope to individual initiative."
In a speech made public last night and to be delivered today to the U.N. General Assembly's special five-day session on Africa's chronic economic trouble, Shultz says:
"The United States firmly believes that our own development experience is a useful guide to productive economic policies. What is the major fundamental lesson of that experience? That the talents of individual human beings are the greatest resource a society can bring to the tasks of national development."
Shultz stresses that massive food aid provided by the United States and other countries to Africa's famine-stricken areas can only be viewed as a stopgap measure.
He praises a document prepared for the U.N. meeting by the Organization of African Unity, which asks African governments to "adopt fundamental changes in their development priorities and policies."
He says: "I think we can agree that successful development in any nation -- in Africa as anywhere else -- lies most fundamentally in the expansion of individual human opportunity."
Shultz calls the increase in African food production during recent months a sign of "historic changes," pointing "to a new generation of African progress."
Expressing U.S. desire to be a "partner" in this change, Shultz proposes a broad five-point program that includes:
*Changing African aid from developed countries in ways that "increase self-reliance and discourage dependency." As an example, he cites the Reagan administration's two-year program "to shift more assistance from public to private entities . . . by using our foreign aid resources to give incentives and support to countries that have undertaken such reforms."
He notes that last year the United States gave $75 million to Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Rwanda and Zambia for such purposes and is holding talks with four other governments that have shown interest in the program. "We can do more for Africans who are trying to reform their economies, and we will," he promises.
*Creating "an environment of confidence" in African countries that will make foreign investors more willing to contribute the substantial sums necessary to increase land cultivation, harness the continent's potential hydroelectric power and allow greater use of its resources in industry and other job-creating opportunities.
Keeping trade opportunities open in ways that "liberalize trade for the benefit of all countries."
*Finding ways to increase aid from such multilateral lending institutions as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. He notes that, acting on a U.S. suggestion, they have established a special loan facility that "should result in an increase of $1.5 billion in low interest loans for Africa in the next five years."
*Developing production technologies that will provide Africa the benefits of improved agriculture used successfully in the "green revolutions" of other Third World countries. The United States, he said, plans to give $1 billion to African agricultural research in the next 15 years.