June 13, 1966: U.S. Supreme Court rules 5 to 4 in Arizona v. Miranda that a confession cannot be used as evidence in a criminal case unless a suspect in police custody is warned of the right to remain silent and to have counsel present during questioning. The case involved Ernest Miranda of Phoenix, who was convicted, with the help of a confession, of kidnaping and rape. Feb. 24, 1971: Ending its absolute prohibition against using evidence obtained before a suspect is advised of Miranda rights, the Supreme Court votes in Harris v. New York that such statements can be used to impeach a defendant's credibility if he takes the stand in his own behalf. June 10, 1974: In Michigan v. Tucker, the court rules that leads developed from a confession given without a Miranda warning can be used as evidence. The evidence was obtained before the Miranda rules went into effect. May 11, 1980: In a case emphasizing the difficulty in defining "police interrogation," the court says statements made by a police officer to a suspect in a paddy wagon did not constitute "interrogation" and therefore no Miranda warning was required. The officer's statements, that children might be wounded by a gun the suspect was believed to have hidden nearby, prompted the suspect to lead police to the weapon, which helped convict him. May 18, 1981: In Edwards v. Arizona, the court holds that when a suspect requests consultation with an attorney police must end questioning and may not resume unless the suspect initiates it. June 12, 1984: The court makes a major modification, voting that in cases where the public safety is endangered, police may question a suspect before warning him of his rights. March 4, 1985: The court votes in Elstad v. Oregon that if a suspect confesses before police warn him of his rights, and confesses again after being warned of his rights, the second confession may be admitted as evidence in a criminal trial. March 10, 1986: The court decides that Miranda warnings are not constitutional rights in and of themselves but only serve to help ensure constitutional rights.