MOSCOW, JUNE 30 -- In a major victory for proponents of glasnost, or greater openness in government, the Supreme Soviet voted today to permit popular referendums on regional political and social issues and to let citizens appeal to the courts from decisions made by Communist Party officials.

The Soviet legislature also passed a law loosening Moscow's grip on enterprises throughout the Soviet Union. The measure is designed to encourage local decision making and greater public involvement in Kremlin leader Mikhail Gorbachev's economic reforms.

The three laws provide the legal underpinning for Gorbachev's key political and economic measures. They put the imprimatur of the highest Soviet legislative body, composed of 1,500 deputies from across the country, on the Kremlin leader's bid to loosen central control over the domestic economy and to broaden democracy.

The measures were passed on the second day of a two-day session in which the legislators underscored the action taken by the powerful Communist Party Central Committee last week when it showed its support of Gorbachev by adopting his economic reform program and promoting three of his allies to the ruling Politburo.

When the Supreme Soviet session closed, two deputies from distant provincial cities used a press conference here to drive home a point: that a Soviet-style "sagebrush rebellion" is brewing across the country, marked by a movement for less control by the Moscow-based party organs and greater initiative by local officials and citizens.

One of the deputies, Fyodor Morgun, a local party leader from the heart of the Ukrainian breadbasket, decried the hindrance of central control on agricultural production and gave a rousing cheer for laws that get central Communist Party organizations off the backs of the people.

"Unfortunately, we have had unprofitable collective farms," Morgun said, "and the reason for this is -- too many instructions, wrong planning, poor management."

Morgun praised the legislation aimed at decentralizing state enterprises. Referring to his home city of Poltava in the Ukraine, he said, "The eyes of the people light up at the news that the role of Gosplan {the Moscow-based state planning commission} will be less and that local enterprises have the right to expand their view."

Gorbachev criticized Gosplan in a major speech in Moscow Thursday.

The new law on state enterprises reduces the role of Moscow-based ministries in the operation of local industries or businesses. It requires all enterprises to be self-supporting, and links wage scales to profits in order to provide worker incentives.

In his speech Thursday, Gorbachev made it clear that this decentralization law is the centerpiece of his array of economic reforms. It will become effective Jan. 1.

According to a description today by Tass, the official news agency, the law on public discussion "seals people's right to take part in the management and administration of state and public affairs and in the discussion and adoption of laws and measures."

"From now on," Tass said, "the discussion of draft laws and measures concerning the main directions of political economic and social development of the country and the exercise of constitutional rights, freedoms and duties of Soviet citizens as well as major issues becomes a rule."

Western diplomats here said that if the law works according to plan, it is a blueprint for referendums on political and social issues. "On paper, it is comparable to western laws granting freedom of speech," one diplomat said. "Whether it will work that way in reality has yet to be seen."

Tass reported that the law includes provisions for "holding wide discussions within the boundaries of individual republics," and for releasing "wide information" on the results.

Andrei Gromyko, head of state and presiding officer of the Supreme Soviet, told that body in a speech today that public discussions in the past were "overorganized," and "in many ways a formality."

Tass quoted Gromyko as saying, "The large-scale renewal drive and the democratization of society demand a precisely functioning mechanism for bringing out public opinion."

The new law on court appeals allows Soviet citizens to challenge "the actions taken by officials on their personal behalf or on behalf of the organization that they represent," Tass reported. The court must respond within 10 days.

Communist Party Secretary George Razumovsky introduced the measure today with a charge that "serious deviations from legal standards still occur," despite a continuing campaign to reform the legal system.

The law, he said, "will be helping assert the principles of social justice more vigorously, promote real participation of citizens in managing state affairs," and "instill a sense in public officials that they are called upon to protect state interests." It, too, will take effect Jan. 1.