BONN, JULY 24 -- The latest Soviet position on an intermediate-range missile treaty has aroused concern in the government here that West Germany might face pressure from the United States and its other NATO allies to sacrifice its 72 Pershing IA missiles to pave the way for an arms control accord, West German officials and western diplomats said today.

The government also fears that the Pershing IA issue could cause serious new strains in Chancellor Helmut Kohl's center-right coalition, which has barely recovered from a bitter dispute in the spring over the impact of an earlier Soviet initiative calling for the elimination of short- and medium-range missiles in Europe, the officials and diplomats said.

Kohl's conservative Christian Democratic Union and its sister party, the Christian Social Union, have emphasized that Bonn must keep the Pershing IAs as a bargaining chip for future arms control negotiations. But their ruling coalition partner, the moderate Free Democratic Party of Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher, has stressed that the Pershing IAs should not stand in the way of an arms treaty.

The Kohl government also is worried that it will alienate the West German public if Bonn is seen as obstructing an arms control agreement because of the Pershing IAs, the officials and diplomats said. The opposition left-of-center Social Democratic Party has urged the government to scrap the antiquated Pershing IAs, which will become obsolete in the next few years, and has claimed that its reluctance to do so will thwart the arms reduction treaty.

The Soviets said yesterday that U.S. insistence on keeping American warheads on the Pershing IAs posed the major obstacle to an agreement to scrap all of the superpowers' missiles in Europe with ranges between 300 and 3,500 miles. The Soviet statement came a day after Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev made a major concession by accepting a U.S. demand to remove all medium-range missile warheads in Asia as well as in Europe.

The Pershing IAs, with a range up to 460 miles, fall in the category of missiles to be scrapped under the proposed treaty. The United States contends, however, that the systems should be excluded from the treaty because the missiles are owned by the West German Air Force and the negotiations are only supposed to cover U.S. and Soviet systems.

The Soviets maintain that the Pershing IAs' nuclear warheads, which are owned and controlled by the United States, must be withdrawn. Otherwise, the Soviets argue, Moscow would give up about 130 SS12 and SS23 missiles, with ranges comparable to that of the Pershing IAs, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization would give up nothing in that category. The Pershing IAs are NATO's only missiles with a range of between 300 and 600 miles.

Bonn officials have expressed satisfaction with Washington's uncompromising stance on the Pershing IAs. They pointed to comments yesterday by U.S. national security adviser Frank C. Carlucci, who strongly reaffirmed NATO's longstanding position that the Pershing IAs should be excluded from the Geneva negotiations.

Chief government spokesman Friedhelm Ost, seeking to place Bonn's position in the context of an overall NATO stance, said, "This clear position of the United States is supported by the {Bonn government} and by the alliance as a whole."

But West German officials said they saw a distinct possibility that their NATO allies eventually could ask them to compromise.

The Soviet stance "puts us in an uncomfortable position," said an official, who spoke on condition that he remain unidentified. The NATO allies "might bring a little bit of pressure on us to accept an agreement" that included the Pershing IAs, he said.

West German officials, in private conversations, have taken a somewhat ambivalent line on the Pershing IAs in recent weeks.

A senior official, speaking in a background briefing, suggested that the government would be willing to give up the Pershing IAs if the Soviets made concessions on other, unspecified issues.

"The German government has never said definitively . . . that we want to keep the Pershing IAs for all time. The question is only when they should be introduced into the negotiations, and at what cost," the official said.

Some officials here also have said they expected the Americans and Soviets to reach a compromise under which the Pershing IAs would remain in place, but there would be an agreement not to replace them with new, modernized missiles.

That might be acceptable to the Soviets, because the Pershing IAs technically will become obsolete in the early 1990s. Their manufacturer, Martin Marietta Corp., has said it will stop producing spare parts for them after 1991.

The Associated Press reported yesterday from Moscow:

The Soviet Union accused the United States of violating the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty by putting into operation Thursday an upgraded radar facility in Thule, Greenland.

A Foreign Ministry statement said the Soviet Union "insists that the United States take, without delay, measures to rectify the violation of the ABM treaty."