Several Supreme Court justices have harshly criticized Solicitor General Charles Fried, saying that his staunch advocacy of the Reagan administration's social and ideological agenda has undermined the office's credibility with the court.

The criticisms, made anonymously, were outlined in an article this week in The New Yorker magazine written by Lincoln Caplan, author of a forthcoming book on the solicitor general's office, "The Tenth Justice."

The solicitor general, an obscure official little known outside law schools, argues the federal government's cases before the high court. Although a member of the Justice Department, he traditionally has been seen by the court as an independent litigator who could be counted on to help the justices wade through difficult legal issues.

Caplan said interviews last year with several justices and clerks showed that in the last two years under Fried there has been a "decline in the standing of the solicitor general" because the court feels it is no longer politically independent.

One justice, according to Caplan, said Fried's office had abandoned legal reasoning for "ideology, pure and simple," and said Fried has "persistently misstated" court decisions.

At least a majority of the court felt "sadness and distress" about "changes in the role of the solicitor general" under Fried, Caplan said. That majority included liberal Justices William J. Brennan Jr. and Thurgood Marshall, moderates Harry A. Blackmun and John Paul Stevens, and Lewis F. Powell Jr., the court's swing vote who retired last month.

Caplan said "each of the four other justices was sometimes put off" by Fried's advocacy, with Justice Sandra Day O'Connor feeling he is "too aggressive," Justice Byron R. White feeling he is too "supercilious" and former chief justice Warren E. Burger believing Fried was "too willing to be a spokesman for the 'reactionary' Reagan administration."

Fried, teaching at a constitutional law seminar in Salzburg, Austria, said yesterday that "the piece is so one-sided and incomplete as to border on dishonesty." He said he had not read the article but that large portions of it had been read to him.

"I can't comment on the accuracy of anonymous quotes, even those said to be attributed to Supreme Court justices," he said.

"Many of the briefs which Caplan complains about {such as those asking the court to overturn its rulings on abortion or to curtail affirmative action programs} were filed prior to my confirmation as solicitor general and had been the subject of discussions with senators during the confirmation processs," Fried said.

"I note with gratification that I passed through both the committee and the Senate by unanimous consent, and that means more to me than anything Lincoln Caplan has to say," he added.