The United States should develop a national energy policy to help reduce dependency on foreign oil and cut risks in the Persian Gulf, Sen. Wyche Fowler Jr. (D-Ga.), speaking for his party, said yesterday.

"We have American sailors, 7,000 miles from home, facing down Iranian suicide squads to defend the Strait of Hormuz," Fowler said in the Democratic response to President Reagan's weekly radio address.

"Do any of us think for one moment that we would even be in the Persian Gulf with our ships and planes, our military personnel exposed to the risks of extremists, if we were not so desperately dependent on that foreign oil?" Fowler asked.

"President Reagan has called this narrow body of water {the Strait of Hormuz} 'a chokepoint for freedom,' " Fowler said. "But is it really a chokepoint for freedom or a choke hold on our country's throat because of our dependency on imported oil?"

The Department of Energy says U.S. dependence on oil imports is greater than during the Arab oil embargo of the 1970s, and gas lines are predicted by the 1990s, he said.

Fowler criticized Reagan's stance on some energy-saving proposals.

"The president vetoed legislation to improve energy efficiency in home appliances, which would have saved American consumers $2.6 billion a year by 1995 and $4 billion a year by the year 2000," he said. "That amounts to over $300 a year per household.

"This administration rolled back the fuel-economy standards for American automobiles, which now will increase fuel consumption by 400 million barrels a day and cost us over $3 billion a year," he added.