CHAUTAUQUA, N.Y., AUG. 26 -- Stung by what they depicted as an unexpectedly negative speech by President Reagan on U.S.-Soviet relations, Soviet spokesmen today reverted to a favorite political sport: Reagan-bashing.

The president's speech was beamed live to Chautauqua, where American and Soviet officials and private citizens have been alternately scolding and hugging each other during a six-day conference on relations between the superpowers. The speech was later discussed by a panel of experts from both countries before an audience of several thousand at this lakeside resort.

Senior Soviet officials attending the conference said they had expected Reagan to adopt a more positive tone at a time when the superpowers are moving toward a major arms control agreement.

"I am disappointed. I expected constructive suggestions for improving our relations. There wasn't any. I expected a constructive tone. There wasn't one. And I expected some reduction in {anti-Soviet} rhetoric -- but we didn't see that either," said Evgeny Primakov, director of Moscow's Institute of World Economy and International Relations.

"I thank President Reagan for taking time off from his holiday to address us. That is all that I have to say that is complimentary about this speech," said Nikolai Shishlin, a senior Communist Party Central Committee staff member who deals with Soviet-American relations. Shishlin said the United States had to cease acting like "a teacher to the Soviet Union."

Soviet and U.S. officials alike said that an agreement abolishing intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) appeared to have come closer as a result of a West German pledge announced today not to modernize Bonn's force of 72 U.S.-built Pershing IA missiles equipped with American nuclear warheads. The officials predicted that the main focus of the INF talks in Geneva would now be on how to verify an agreement.

Soviet officials have sought to exploit what they clearly regard as a significant propaganda advantage following a shift this week in the U.S. position on verification of nuclear arms reduction agreements. Addressing an arms control seminar here, they suggested that the Soviet Union now favored much more stringent verification procedures than the United States.

Col. Gen. Nikolai Chervov, one of the Kremlin's top arms control policymakers, said he was aware that the United States now wanted to limit intrusive on-site inspections for monitoring an agreement that would eliminate medium- and short-range missiles.

"We favor the strictest system of verification, without any right to refuse verification. We want to make sure that these obligations are fulfilled by everybody," he declared at a round table discussion.

Earlier Chervov said in an interview that Soviet arms control experts had regarded U.S. calls for stringent verification procedures as a "bluff." He said that the United States had apparently changed its position once Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev indicated that Moscow was ready to accept intrusive on-site verification.

U.S. officials said that the new U.S. plan on verification was a consequence of the Soviet decision to accept the so-called double-zero option for the elimination of intermediate- and short-range missiles worldwide.

"You don't need the same kind of highly intrusive inspection procedures if the systems don't exist," Charles H. Thomas, deputy assistant secretary of state for European and Canadian affairs, told the round table group.

Other government officials have said U.S. intelligence agencies are also wary of allowing Soviet inspectors to show up uninvited at sensitive American installations.

The debate on arms control was one of several seminars on U.S.-Soviet relations that have been organized here over the past week on issues ranging from human rights and diplomacy to cultural exchanges and changes in the Soviet cinema. The conference is being attended by about 250 Soviet officials, journalists, and cultural figures and several thousand Americans.